MARCH 2, 1999



Use the zone information of the following to answer the questions below. Use the species number as the answer (1 through 4) number on the opscan sheet.


Species 1 zone 4a - 6b

Species 2 zone 4b - 7a

Species 3 zone 6a - 8a

Species 4 zone 6b - 8b


1. Which species is the least cold hardy?


2. Which species has the greatest heat tolerance?


3. Which species would not be suited to Blacksburg?


4. In terms of a pine's tolerance to adversity based on needle number per fascicle, which selection is correct in order of increasing tolerance (least to most)?

1. P. strobus, P. palustris, P. flexilis

2. P. wallichiana, P. bungeana, P. parviflora

3. P. mugo, P. bungeana, P. densiflora

4. P. densiflora, P. mugo, P. nigra


5. The name and location of the world class conifer collection mentioned in class is:

1. Gotlieb Collection - National Arboretum, Washington, DC

2. Gotlieb Collection - Longwood Gardens, Kennett Square, PA

3. Gotelli Collection - National Arboretum, Washington, DC

4. Gotelli Collection - Longwood Gardens, Kennett Square, PA


6. Spruces, firs, and hemlocks differ from pines in that they generally keep their lower branches when they get older.

1. true

2. false


7. Two morphological characteristics of needles that confer drought tolerance to conifers are:

1. surface stomates and waxy covering

2. sunken stomates and waxy covering

3. surface stomates and cylindrical form

4. sunken stomates and an increased surface area


8. When a species has both sexes on a single plant, it is called:

1. monoecious

2. monoculture

3. morphological

4. dimorphism

5. dioecious

6. lucky


9. The recommended stage (time of development) to prune a pine is in the:

1. cradle stage

2. needle senescence stage

3. strobili production stage

4. strobili senescence stage

5. candle stage


10. You need pine species for a highway median in coastal NJ. Thus, species will need to be drought and salt tolerant. Which selection would work for this scenario?

1. P. strobus, P. parviflora, P. densiflora

2. P. bungeana, P. sylvestris, P. mugo

3. P. thunbergii, P. nigra, P. parviflora

4. P. thunbergii, P. wllichiana, P. strobus


11. Which one of these is NOT suitable for an alkaline soil?

1. Pinus leucodermis

2. Pinus mugo

3. Pinus nigra

4. Pinus strobus

5. Picea omorika


12. Pinus flexilis, P. mugo, and P. thunbergii are considered to be drought tolerant.

1. true

2. false


13. Of the three species of Cedrus we discussed, the most cold hardy is

1. deodara

2. atlantica

3. libani


14. Of the three species of Cedrus we discussed, the least cold hardy is

1. deodara

2. atlantica

3. libani


15. Tsuga canadensis is tolerant of:

1. shade and drought

2. drought and pruning

3. shade and pruning

4. pruning and windy locations


16. These two pines are slow-growing and have a formal conical form.

1. P. densiflora and P. cembra

2. P. heldreichii var. leucodermis and P. cembra

3. P. parviflora and P. flexilis

4. P. wallichiana and P. mugo


17. If you had to select a fir for a dry location (in Blacksburg), the best choice would be:

1. A. concolor

2. A. fraseri


Use the following cultivars (and their respective numbers) in the questions below:


1. Pinus densiflora 'Umbraculifera'

2. Pinus thunbergii 'Thunderhead'

3. Abies concolor 'Candicans'

4. Cedrus atlantica 'Glauca Pendula'

5. Picea abies 'Little Gem'

6. Picea orientalis 'Skylands'

7. Chamaecyparis nootkatensis 'Green Arrow'

8. Tsuga canadensis 'Albo Spica'

9. Thuja occidentalis 'Rheingold'

10. Thuja occidentalis 'Nigra'


18. dwarf, multistem, upright, dark foliage with prominent white buds


19. dwarf, white variegation on branch tips


20. upright, conical form with yellow foliage


21. upright, very narrow columnar form


22. spherical form with bronze winter foliage and yellow in summer


23. dwarf, upright, multistem, orange bark


24. Mites would most likely attack conifers with this characteristic:

1. yellow foliage

2. pendulous form

3. blue foliage

4. dense foliage

5. non-resinous foliage


25. Which one of these genera is NOT in the Cupressaceae family?

1. Thuja

2. Chamaecyparis

3. Pseudotsuga

4. X Cupressocyparis leylandii

5. Cupressus


26. The parents of X Cupressocyparis leylandii with the correct hardiness zones are:

1. Cupressus macrocarpa (zone 7) and Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (4)

2. Cupressus macrocarpa (zone 4) and Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (7)

3. Cupressus arizonica (zone 6) and Chamaecyparis obtusa (zone 5)

4. Cupressus arizonica (zone 5) and Chamaecyparis obtusa (zone 6)


27. The disease that afflicts leyland cypress is:

1. Diplodia

2. Sphaeropsis

3. Seridium

4. Cankerodium

5. Botulism


28. Which statement is not necessarily true for Cupressus arizonica?

1. some cultivars are fast-growing

2. drought tolerant

3. will get at least 30' tall

4. will withstand extremes of zone 6a

5. has a high degree of seedling variability


29. Chamaecyparis thyoides differs from most conifers in that this species can tolerate:

1. wet soils

2. shade

3. dry rocky soils

4. fire


30. The form and size of a mature Cedrus is:

1. strictly conical and small to medium tree

2. strictly conical and large tree

3. wide spreading flat-topped small to medium tree

4. wide spreading flat-topped large tree


31. In terms of growth rate and culture, which is true for Thuja occidentalis:

1. slow; tolerates shade, drought and alkaline soil

2. slow; tolerates drought, moist/wet soil

3. fast; tolerates shade, drought and alkaline soil

4 fast; tolerates drought, moist/wet soil


32. In terms of form and growth rate, some Thuja plicata cultivars are generally considered as alternatives to leyland cypress

1. true

2. false


33. In terms of a pest problem, hemlock wooly adelgid is generally considered:

1. minor

2. average

3. serious


34. In terms of mature size and culture, Thuja orientalis is:

1. about 5' and not tolerant of difficult sites

2. about 5' and tolerant of difficult sites

3. about 15'+ and not tolerant of difficult sites

4. about 15+ and tolerant of difficult sites


35. Sciadopitys verticillata is a:

1. slow-growing species that tolerates an full sun location in zone 7b

2. slow-growing species but is relatively inexpensive

3. slow-growing species that is relatively expensive

4. fast-growing species but expensive


36. In terms of size and growth rate, Pinus aristata would be best suited:

1. in a large open space

2. in a relatively small area

3. as a hedge species

4. when a tight mounded plant is needed


37. Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, a northwestern U.S. species, has numerous cultivars and is quite adaptable to the heavy clay soils of the southeastern U.S.

1. true

2. false






The internet nursery, Aesthetic Gardens, sells a sculpted Pinus virginiana 'Wates Golden' for:

1. $500

2. $1000

3. $1500

4. $2500


Dr. Stipes labeled foreign plant disease organisms as a:

1. pandemic

2. conflagration

3. trojan horse

4. Bart Simpson