Theme parks are a phenomenon of the 20th century, but their antecedents date back to the 18th and 19th centuries. Theme parks reflect specific concepts about gardens, landscape, and nature. The designed landscape is of great importance to their functions, and it may even be a theme in itself. The spectrum of topics may range from historic gardens with "themed" landscapes, amusement parks, and garden exhibitions to modern theme parks.
The symposium will be held at Dumbarton Oaks on May 17 and 18, 1996. Those interested in presenting a paper should request more detailed information from Director of Studies in Landscape Architecture, Dumbarton Oaks, 1703 32nd St. NW, Washington, DC 20007; tel. 202-342-3280; FAX 202-342-3207.
The Winter 1995 issue of Small Scale Agriculture Today, published by the Office for Small- Scale Agriculture, carried strong support for "the gardening efforts of disabled Americans and encourages their rehabilitative efforts by providing important information to assist their gardening ventures."
The March/April 1995 issue of Natural Health: The Guide to Well-Being published an article, "The Gardening Cure," by Laura Taxel, which featured contributions from several PPC members.
The January 1995 issue of Landscape Architecture featured seven articles on healing landscapes.
The Chicago Park District is creating a new initiative Garden Parks, for developing and promoting a sense of stewardship of the earth and the reclaiming of public space through community gardening and public art programs. The Garden Parks program includes KidsGrow - a school-parks partnership with the Chicago Public School system in which elementary and high school students design, plant, cultivate, harvest, and learn science and horticulture inside their schools and outside in garden classrooms. For more information, contact Jean de St. Aubin, 425 East McFetridge Drive, Chicago, IL 60605; tel. 312-347- 7574.
The Virginia Museum of Natural History in association with the Virginia Nurserymen's Association and Phillips Petroleum Environmental Partnership are sponsoring a children's gardening program, "Gardening for Nature," which provides financial and materials assistance to elementary and middle school gardening projects around the state of Virginia. For more information, contact Jeff Minnich, VNA Public Relations Chairman, Campbell & Ferrara Nurseries, Inc., 6651 Little River Turnpike, Alexandria, VA 22312; tel. 703-354- 6724.
The January 1995 issue of Landscape Architecture, a publication of the American Society of Landscape Architects, featured Healing Gardens, publishing seven articles on the therapeutic benefits of horticulture and human interaction. Copies of this issue can be purchased by sending $7 per magazine to Landscape Architecture, 4401 Connecticut Avenue NW, 5th floor, Washington, DC 20008-2302; tel. 800-787-LAMS.
Healing Gardens, by Molly Dannenmaier. 1995. Landscape Architecture 85(1):56-58. The therapeutic benefits of gardens are established in this article discussing Roger Ulrich's connections between healing and the landscape and featuring several healing gardens, such as Serenity Hollow Farm and Mur-Ci Homes of Tennessee.
Realm of the Senses, by Kathleen McCormick. 1995. Landscape Architecture 85(1):61-63. McCormick explains the history and function of the Joel Schnaper Memorial Garden at the Terrence Cardinal Cooke Health Care Center's residential AIDS unit.
The Promotion of Wellness, by Margaret Stevens. 1995. Landscape Architecture 85(1):64- 67. The rooftop of the Patricia Neal Rehabilitation Center in Knoxville, Tennessee, boasts a beautiful garden designed for healing and therapy.
Nature Meets Nurture, by Michael Leccese. 1995. Landscape Architecture 85(1):68-71. St. Michael Hospital, formerly of Texarkana, Arkansas, has moved across the border to a 52- acre campus in Texas. Designed after Ulrich's and Kaplan's theories of the healing dimension of the environment, this hospital offers a true healing landscape.
Mending Wall, by Dirk Sutro. 1995. Landscape Architecture 85(1):72-75. Seven court yards and animal topiaries are features of the Children's Hospital and Health Center in San Diego, California. This split-level roof top garden offers interactive toys and many colorful plants to the children visiting its realm.
Life in Fast-Forward Reverse, by Margaret Stevens. Landscape Architecture 85(1):71-79. Sedgewood Commons, a facility for Alzheimer's Disease treatment in Falmouth, Maine, features the "remembrance therapy" designs of Robert C. Hoover, ASLA.
Restorative Landscapes, by Sam Bass Warner. Landscape Architecture 85(1):128. Warner discusses the future of healing as a return to the "gardened" hospitals, where the restorative gardens are used as "active agents in health care."
The October-December 1994 issue of HortTechnology, a publication of the American Society for Horticultural Science (ASHS), featured three articles pertaining to people-plant interaction. For ordering information, contact ASHS, 113 South West Street, Suite 400, Alexandria, VA 22314-2824; tel. 703-836-4606.
The Apple in Paradise, by Miklos Faust. 1994. HortTechnology 4(4):338-343. Faust discusses the story of the forbidden fruit, "the apple in paradise." This interesting article discusses some history of horticulture and much culture related to the meaning of the Christian paradise garden and the apple, the fruit associated with the sin of man.
Taxus Populations and Clippings Yields at Commercial Nurseries, by Robert C Hansen, Kenneth D. Cochran, Harold M. Keener, and Edward M Croon, Jr. 1994. HortTechnology 4(4):372-377. A natural product, taxol is an extract from the Pacific yew (Taxus x media) approved by the FDA for ovarian and breast cancer treatment. Further studies are showing possible applications to other cancers, including melanoma, lung, head, and neck cancers.
Rutgers Urban Gardening: A Study in Cultural Diversity and Gardening, by Ishwarbhai C. Patel. 1994. HortTechnology 4(4):402-403. Rutgers University has an urban gardening program that employs six ethnic minorities, which reaches a diverse audience of over 30 minority groups, and includes varied educational programs. This urban gardening program provides an excellent opportunity for community interaction regardless of age or ethnic background.
Mark Francis is Professor of Landscape Architecture at the University of California, Davis. Randolph T. Hester Jr., is professor and Chair of the Department of Landscape Architecture at the University of California, Berkeley.
The Able Gardener (Kathleen Yeomans. 1992. Soft cover: $16.95. 304 pages. ISBN # 0- 88266-789-0. Storey Communications, Inc. Schoolhouse Road, Pownal, VT 05261; tel. 802- 823-5819) is a well-illustrated, informative book. It has wonderful side bars with a host of clever ideas. Any physical limitation can be overcome by the able gardener, and this book is a real help. It is not only a "how to" book, but a real world, "can do" book. It is difficult for any author to try to cover all that can or needs to be said about gardening, but this book will be of help to the beginner or the intermediate gardener. The Able Gardener is a worthwhile addition to your gardening library, but be forewarned -- the ideas presented will have you saying, "I can do that!" Yeomans covers such areas as mail-order sources, compost, mulch, indoor container gardening, raised beds, starting seeds, beneficial insects, companion plants, plant to touch and plants to listen to, and even drying flowers with your microwave. (Reviewed by M.P. Hull, Master Gardener.)
The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Perspective (Rachel and Stephen Kaplan. 1994. Softcover: $18.95. 336 pages. ISBN # 0521-349-397. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011; tel. 1-800-872-7423) offers the first research-based analysis of the vital psychological role that nature plays in our lives. Over a period of 20 years, the authors have sought to understand how people perceive nature and what types of natural environments they prefer, what psychological benefits they seem to derive from wilderness experiences, and why backyard gardens are especially important to some people. The book examines the satisfactions and advantages that various natural settings bring to us.
African-American Gardens and Yards in the Rural South (Richard Westmacott. 1992. Hardcover: $26.95. 198 pages. ISBN # 0-87049-762-6. The University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN 37996-0325) traces garden transitions from the villages of Africa to the modern, rural South. This book looks at the design and use of the yard garden and the meaning of gardening to the people interviewed, providing a tremendous resource for insight and understanding.
Transitory Gardens, Uprooted Lives (Diana Balmori and Margaret Morton. 1993. Hardcover: $25. 147 pages. ISBN # 0-300-05772-5. Yale University Press, 92A Yale Station, New Haven, CT 06520) is emotionally illustrated with black and white photos that take us through the gardens of the lower east side of Manhattan, gardens built by homeless or impoverished of the area. This book also explores what the garden design means to its creator and expands our definition of a garden.
1.5 Watering lawn or garden, standing or walking
2.5 Walking, applying fertilizer or seeding a lawn, mowing lawn, riding mower
3.5 Trimming shrubs or trees, power cutter
4.0 Raking lawn, sacking grass and leaves, planting seeds, shrubs
4.5 Mowing lawn, walk, power mower; weeding, cultivating garden; planting trees; operating snow blower, walking; trimming shrubs or trees, manual
5.0 Carrying, loading, or stacking wood; clearing land, hauling branches; digging sandbox; laying sod
6.0 Shoveling snow, by hand shoveling; chopping wood, splitting logs; mowing lawn, walk, hand mower; gardening with heavy power tools, tilling a garden; shoveling, light (less than 10 lbs./min.)
0.9 Lying quietly, reclining, sleeping
1.5 Sitting, knitting, sewing
3.0 Carpentry, general, workshop; bowling
3.5 Walking, 3.0 mph, level, moderate pace, firm surface
4.0 Bicycling, <10 mph, leisure; water aerobics; fishing
4.5 Cleaning, heavy or major; golf, general
5.0 Softball or baseball, general; hunting, general; bicycling, stationary, general
6.0 Aerobics, general; swimming, general
7.0 Jogging, general
8.0 Basketball, general, non-game
(Source: Ainsworth, Barbara, et al. 1993. Compendium of physical activities: classification of energy costs of human physical activities, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, pp.71-80.)
To find out more about the HRI, its competitive grants program, or to request an application packet, contact HRI, 1250 I Street NW, Suite 500, Washington DC 20005; tel. 202-789- 2900. If you apply for an HRI grant, mention that you read about the program in the People- Plant Council News.
People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities. Joel Flagler and Raymond P.Pincelot, PhD, Editors. 1993. Food Products Press. 368 pages. $54.
The Healing Dimensions of People-Plant Relations: A Research Symposium. Edited by Mark Francis, Patricia Lindsey, and Jay Stone Rice. 1994. 498 pages. $39.
People-Plant Interaction (1305 citations) and Horticulture Therapy (1184 citations) bibliographies are available on 3.5-inch, DS/HD diskettes containing the citations in WordPerfect 5.0. The material also can be ordered on 3.5-inch diskettes as DOS text files. Updates - return original diskette and $5.
1) Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development -
reflections of Jules Janick, Charles Lewis, Roger Ulrich, Russ Parson, and
2) The Art of Rhonda Roland Shearer.
**** All prices include shipping and handling. Make checks payable to Treasurer, Virginia Tech. ****
PPC Affiliation and Contributors
The PPC is not a membership organization, rather a link or affiliation between organizations. Affiliation is open to all organizations within the horticulture and social science communities and allied or interested organizations.
Affiliates of PPC
American Society for Horticultural Science
Associated Landscape Contractors of America
Wholesale Florists and Florist Suppliers of America
American Horticultural Therapy Association
Society of American Florists
American Association of Nurserymen
Contributors to PPC
Horticulture Research Institute
Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association
Editor: Diane Relf, PPC Chair
Assistant Editor: Sheri T. Dorn
Address correspondence to Dr. Diane Relf, Chair, People-Plant Council, Department of Horticulture, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA 24061-0327. FAX: 703-231-3083. Telephone: 703-231-6254.
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