People-Plant Council News

Linking Horticulture with Human Well-Being
Volume 5, Spring 1995, Issue 1

Symposium: Therapeutic Landscapes: Designing Gardens for Health and Healing

The Friends of Horticultural Therapy with The Ohio Chapter of the American Horticultural Therapy Association, The Cleveland Botanical Garden, The Holden Arboretum, and Sea World of Ohio are sponsoring a symposium on design and programming for garden accessibility and therapeutic benefits. The purpose of the symposium is to provide the most current information about therapeutic landscape design, the theory and practice of enabling gardening, and horticultural therapy programming for innovative garden usage by people of all ages and abilities. Mark your calendars now for the September 21-22, 1995 symposium in Cleveland, Ohio! For more information, contact Nancy Stevenson at the Garden Center of Greater Cleveland, 11030 East Boulevard, Cleveland, OH 44106; tel. 216-721-1600.

Symposium Call for Papers: The Landscape of Theme Parks and Their Antecedents

The Center for Studies in Landscape Architecture at Dumbarton Oaks/Trustees for Harvard University will hold its 1996 symposium on the topic "The Landscape of Theme Parks and their Antecedents."

Theme parks are a phenomenon of the 20th century, but their antecedents date back to the 18th and 19th centuries. Theme parks reflect specific concepts about gardens, landscape, and nature. The designed landscape is of great importance to their functions, and it may even be a theme in itself. The spectrum of topics may range from historic gardens with "themed" landscapes, amusement parks, and garden exhibitions to modern theme parks.

The symposium will be held at Dumbarton Oaks on May 17 and 18, 1996. Those interested in presenting a paper should request more detailed information from Director of Studies in Landscape Architecture, Dumbarton Oaks, 1703 32nd St. NW, Washington, DC 20007; tel. 202-342-3280; FAX 202-342-3207.

Lilypons Sponsors Youth Environmental Awareness

The Lily Ponds for Youth(SM) grant program, designed to enhance awareness of the environment in school age youths, provides matching dollars ($100 to $1000 for projects costing $200 to $2000) for youths to cultivate an aquatic environment. The aesthetics and ecology of the pond make clear and fun tools for learning about many subjects such as biology, chemistry, ecology, and horticulture. To apply, write or FAX to Lilypons Water Gardens, PO Box 10, Buckeystown, MD 21717-0010; FAX 301-874-2325; on PTA or school stationary, requesting application details for your school. Deadline for application is June 1, 1995.

People-plant Interaction in the News

The New York Times featured the healing dimension of horticulture in its December 29, 1994 article, "When Hope Falters, Balm for the Soul," by Anne Raver. Raver features healing gardens, such as those at the Terrence Cardinal Cook Health Care Center in East Harlem, New York; Friends Hospital near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and the St. Michael Health Care Center in Dallas, Texas. Raver was able to reach individuals knowledgeable in horticulture therapy through assistance from the People-Plant Council and The American Horticultural Therapy Association.

The Winter 1995 issue of Small Scale Agriculture Today, published by the Office for Small- Scale Agriculture, carried strong support for "the gardening efforts of disabled Americans and encourages their rehabilitative efforts by providing important information to assist their gardening ventures."

The March/April 1995 issue of Natural Health: The Guide to Well-Being published an article, "The Gardening Cure," by Laura Taxel, which featured contributions from several PPC members.

The January 1995 issue of Landscape Architecture featured seven articles on healing landscapes.

People-plant Interaction and Education

Clemson University (Clemson, SC 29634) offers two courses in the area of human interactions with horticulture. Horticulture and Human Well-Being and Garden Experiences in Youth Development are taught by Dr. Jere A. Brittain, Department of Horticulture.

The Chicago Park District is creating a new initiative Garden Parks, for developing and promoting a sense of stewardship of the earth and the reclaiming of public space through community gardening and public art programs. The Garden Parks program includes KidsGrow - a school-parks partnership with the Chicago Public School system in which elementary and high school students design, plant, cultivate, harvest, and learn science and horticulture inside their schools and outside in garden classrooms. For more information, contact Jean de St. Aubin, 425 East McFetridge Drive, Chicago, IL 60605; tel. 312-347- 7574.

The Virginia Museum of Natural History in association with the Virginia Nurserymen's Association and Phillips Petroleum Environmental Partnership are sponsoring a children's gardening program, "Gardening for Nature," which provides financial and materials assistance to elementary and middle school gardening projects around the state of Virginia. For more information, contact Jeff Minnich, VNA Public Relations Chairman, Campbell & Ferrara Nurseries, Inc., 6651 Little River Turnpike, Alexandria, VA 22312; tel. 703-354- 6724.

People-Plant Interaction Featured

Recent features of the therapeutic benefits of people-plant interactions demonstrate the increased sensitivity and awareness of the horticulture and landscape communities to human issues in horticulture.

The January 1995 issue of Landscape Architecture, a publication of the American Society of Landscape Architects, featured Healing Gardens, publishing seven articles on the therapeutic benefits of horticulture and human interaction. Copies of this issue can be purchased by sending $7 per magazine to Landscape Architecture, 4401 Connecticut Avenue NW, 5th floor, Washington, DC 20008-2302; tel. 800-787-LAMS.

Healing Gardens, by Molly Dannenmaier. 1995. Landscape Architecture 85(1):56-58. The therapeutic benefits of gardens are established in this article discussing Roger Ulrich's connections between healing and the landscape and featuring several healing gardens, such as Serenity Hollow Farm and Mur-Ci Homes of Tennessee.

Realm of the Senses, by Kathleen McCormick. 1995. Landscape Architecture 85(1):61-63. McCormick explains the history and function of the Joel Schnaper Memorial Garden at the Terrence Cardinal Cooke Health Care Center's residential AIDS unit.

The Promotion of Wellness, by Margaret Stevens. 1995. Landscape Architecture 85(1):64- 67. The rooftop of the Patricia Neal Rehabilitation Center in Knoxville, Tennessee, boasts a beautiful garden designed for healing and therapy.

Nature Meets Nurture, by Michael Leccese. 1995. Landscape Architecture 85(1):68-71. St. Michael Hospital, formerly of Texarkana, Arkansas, has moved across the border to a 52- acre campus in Texas. Designed after Ulrich's and Kaplan's theories of the healing dimension of the environment, this hospital offers a true healing landscape.

Mending Wall, by Dirk Sutro. 1995. Landscape Architecture 85(1):72-75. Seven court yards and animal topiaries are features of the Children's Hospital and Health Center in San Diego, California. This split-level roof top garden offers interactive toys and many colorful plants to the children visiting its realm.

Life in Fast-Forward Reverse, by Margaret Stevens. Landscape Architecture 85(1):71-79. Sedgewood Commons, a facility for Alzheimer's Disease treatment in Falmouth, Maine, features the "remembrance therapy" designs of Robert C. Hoover, ASLA.

Restorative Landscapes, by Sam Bass Warner. Landscape Architecture 85(1):128. Warner discusses the future of healing as a return to the "gardened" hospitals, where the restorative gardens are used as "active agents in health care."

The October-December 1994 issue of HortTechnology, a publication of the American Society for Horticultural Science (ASHS), featured three articles pertaining to people-plant interaction. For ordering information, contact ASHS, 113 South West Street, Suite 400, Alexandria, VA 22314-2824; tel. 703-836-4606.

The Apple in Paradise, by Miklos Faust. 1994. HortTechnology 4(4):338-343. Faust discusses the story of the forbidden fruit, "the apple in paradise." This interesting article discusses some history of horticulture and much culture related to the meaning of the Christian paradise garden and the apple, the fruit associated with the sin of man.

Taxus Populations and Clippings Yields at Commercial Nurseries, by Robert C Hansen, Kenneth D. Cochran, Harold M. Keener, and Edward M Croon, Jr. 1994. HortTechnology 4(4):372-377. A natural product, taxol is an extract from the Pacific yew (Taxus x media) approved by the FDA for ovarian and breast cancer treatment. Further studies are showing possible applications to other cancers, including melanoma, lung, head, and neck cancers.

Rutgers Urban Gardening: A Study in Cultural Diversity and Gardening, by Ishwarbhai C. Patel. 1994. HortTechnology 4(4):402-403. Rutgers University has an urban gardening program that employs six ethnic minorities, which reaches a diverse audience of over 30 minority groups, and includes varied educational programs. This urban gardening program provides an excellent opportunity for community interaction regardless of age or ethnic background.

Learning through Landscapes

Bill Lucas, Trust Director of Learning through Landscapes, a UK-based education foundation striving to provide all aspects of sustainable school grounds development, announces the first International School Grounds Day in May, 1995. After his presentation at AHS' Out of the Classroom, into the Garden symposium, Lucas found international support for his efforts to educate children by developing an educational landscape on school grounds. For more information on International School Grounds Day, send your name, school name, address, and possible ideas to Bill Lucas, LTL, Floor 3, Southside, Law Courts, Winchester S023 9DL.

Book Reviews

The Meaning of Gardens (edited by Mark Francis and Randolph T. Hester, Jr. 1994. Softcover: $24.95. 288 pages. ISBN # 0262-56061-5. The MIT Press, 55 Hayward Street, Cambridge, MA 02142.) is the first book to focus on what the garden means -- on the ecology of garden as idea, place, and action. The Meaning of Gardens maps out how the garden is perceived, designed, used, and valued. The Meaning of Gardens probes the social and philosophical importance of the garden to explain why it is central to our individual lives, our society, and our planet.

Mark Francis is Professor of Landscape Architecture at the University of California, Davis. Randolph T. Hester Jr., is professor and Chair of the Department of Landscape Architecture at the University of California, Berkeley.

The Able Gardener (Kathleen Yeomans. 1992. Soft cover: $16.95. 304 pages. ISBN # 0- 88266-789-0. Storey Communications, Inc. Schoolhouse Road, Pownal, VT 05261; tel. 802- 823-5819) is a well-illustrated, informative book. It has wonderful side bars with a host of clever ideas. Any physical limitation can be overcome by the able gardener, and this book is a real help. It is not only a "how to" book, but a real world, "can do" book. It is difficult for any author to try to cover all that can or needs to be said about gardening, but this book will be of help to the beginner or the intermediate gardener. The Able Gardener is a worthwhile addition to your gardening library, but be forewarned -- the ideas presented will have you saying, "I can do that!" Yeomans covers such areas as mail-order sources, compost, mulch, indoor container gardening, raised beds, starting seeds, beneficial insects, companion plants, plant to touch and plants to listen to, and even drying flowers with your microwave. (Reviewed by M.P. Hull, Master Gardener.)

The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Perspective (Rachel and Stephen Kaplan. 1994. Softcover: $18.95. 336 pages. ISBN # 0521-349-397. Cambridge University Press, 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011; tel. 1-800-872-7423) offers the first research-based analysis of the vital psychological role that nature plays in our lives. Over a period of 20 years, the authors have sought to understand how people perceive nature and what types of natural environments they prefer, what psychological benefits they seem to derive from wilderness experiences, and why backyard gardens are especially important to some people. The book examines the satisfactions and advantages that various natural settings bring to us.

African-American Gardens and Yards in the Rural South (Richard Westmacott. 1992. Hardcover: $26.95. 198 pages. ISBN # 0-87049-762-6. The University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN 37996-0325) traces garden transitions from the villages of Africa to the modern, rural South. This book looks at the design and use of the yard garden and the meaning of gardening to the people interviewed, providing a tremendous resource for insight and understanding.

Transitory Gardens, Uprooted Lives (Diana Balmori and Margaret Morton. 1993. Hardcover: $25. 147 pages. ISBN # 0-300-05772-5. Yale University Press, 92A Yale Station, New Haven, CT 06520) is emotionally illustrated with black and white photos that take us through the gardens of the lower east side of Manhattan, gardens built by homeless or impoverished of the area. This book also explores what the garden design means to its creator and expands our definition of a garden.

Children's Gardening Books

Many new books on children's gardening have recently been published. Most are science- based or "how-to" oriented, but a few are short stories that inspire children to appreciate the value of plants and flowers. One is Flower Garden (by Eve Bunting. 1994. Hardcover: $13.95. ISBN # 0-15-228776-0. Harcourt Brace & Company, 8th Floor, Orlando, FL 32887). It is the story of a little girl in a city apartment and a special birthday gift for her mother. Another, The Three Little Wolves and the Big Bad Pig (Eugene Trivizas and Helen Oxenbury. Hardcover: $15.95. ISBN # 0-689-50569-8. Macmillan Publishing Company, 866 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10022), is a wonderful twist on a classic childhood tale where all turns out well because someone did indeed take time to "smell the flowers." A third story, An Apple a Day (Jennifer Storey Gillis. Illustrated by Patti Delmonte. 1993. Soft cover: $8.95. ISBN: 0-88266-849-8. A Storey Publishing Book, Storey Communications, Inc., Schoolhouse Road, Pownal, VT 05261), is a delightful children's book (all about apples) that begins with a description of the "tools of the trade" for peeling, coring, and slicing and the comment that "one of the wonderful things about apples is that they are available for projects and recipes all year long." The book would not be complete without the clever and imaginative illustrations. They set the whole tone for An Apple a Day -- a colorful, fun-filled, informative book for all children who like to be creative and have fun doing it. (Reviewed by Mary Ellen Lloyd, Master Gardener.)

Gardening for Exercise

In a recent study by Barbara Ainsworth and associates, exertion values were assigned to human physical activities of all kinds. These values were based on the ratio of the associated metabolic rate for the specific activity divided by the resting metabolic rate. These studies show that an individual expends just as much energy performing some gardening tasks as they would participating in recommended exercise routines.


1.5 Watering lawn or garden, standing or walking
2.5 Walking, applying fertilizer or seeding a lawn, mowing lawn, riding mower
3.5 Trimming shrubs or trees, power cutter
4.0 Raking lawn, sacking grass and leaves, planting seeds, shrubs
4.5 Mowing lawn, walk, power mower; weeding, cultivating garden; planting trees; operating snow blower, walking; trimming shrubs or trees, manual
5.0 Carrying, loading, or stacking wood; clearing land, hauling branches; digging sandbox; laying sod
6.0 Shoveling snow, by hand shoveling; chopping wood, splitting logs; mowing lawn, walk, hand mower; gardening with heavy power tools, tilling a garden; shoveling, light (less than 10 lbs./min.)


0.9 Lying quietly, reclining, sleeping
1.5 Sitting, knitting, sewing
2.3 Walking-shopping
3.0 Carpentry, general, workshop; bowling
3.5 Walking, 3.0 mph, level, moderate pace, firm surface
4.0 Bicycling, <10 mph, leisure; water aerobics; fishing
4.5 Cleaning, heavy or major; golf, general
5.0 Softball or baseball, general; hunting, general; bicycling, stationary, general
6.0 Aerobics, general; swimming, general
7.0 Jogging, general
8.0 Basketball, general, non-game

(Source: Ainsworth, Barbara, et al. 1993. Compendium of physical activities: classification of energy costs of human physical activities, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, pp.71-80.)

HRI Seeks Research Grant Proposals

The Horticultural Research Institute is beginning its annual grants program year by requesting applications from scientists in the nursery and landscape industry, including individuals researching people-plant interaction. Research previously supported by HRI includes Youth Guide for Planting and Caring for Trees in the Landscape, $4500 to Kathleen Ruppert and Greg Davis of University of Florida; Consumer Perceptions of Garden Center Product and Service Quality, $5000 to Jay Hudson of Auburn University of Alabama; and Horticulture Distribution Center Customer Survey, $5000 to the American Association of Nurserymen, Washington, DC. HRI is extremely interested in receiving proposals related to the area of people-plant interaction, so get your application now! Deadline for application: May 1, 1995.

To find out more about the HRI, its competitive grants program, or to request an application packet, contact HRI, 1250 I Street NW, Suite 500, Washington DC 20005; tel. 202-789- 2900. If you apply for an HRI grant, mention that you read about the program in the People- Plant Council News.

Keep Sharing the Information

As a result of articles and notices in recent trade publications, the People-Plant Council has received much attention, and correspondence has increased! Keep sharing the information!

Resources Available from PPC


The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development. Diane Relf, Editor.1992. Timber Press. 254 pages. $54.

People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities. Joel Flagler and Raymond P.Pincelot, PhD, Editors. 1993. Food Products Press. 368 pages. $54.

The Healing Dimensions of People-Plant Relations: A Research Symposium. Edited by Mark Francis, Patricia Lindsey, and Jay Stone Rice. 1994. 498 pages. $39.


$15 each.

People-Plant Interaction (1305 citations) and Horticulture Therapy (1184 citations) bibliographies are available on 3.5-inch, DS/HD diskettes containing the citations in WordPerfect 5.0. The material also can be ordered on 3.5-inch diskettes as DOS text files. Updates - return original diskette and $5.


$15 each.

1) Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development - reflections of Jules Janick, Charles Lewis, Roger Ulrich, Russ Parson, and Diane Relf
2) The Art of Rhonda Roland Shearer.

**** All prices include shipping and handling. Make checks payable to Treasurer, Virginia Tech. ****

PPC Affiliation and Contributors
The PPC is not a membership organization, rather a link or affiliation between organizations. Affiliation is open to all organizations within the horticulture and social science communities and allied or interested organizations.

Affiliates of PPC
American Society for Horticultural Science
Associated Landscape Contractors of America
Wholesale Florists and Florist Suppliers of America
American Horticultural Therapy Association
Society of American Florists
American Association of Nurserymen

Contributors to PPC
Horticulture Research Institute
Florida Nurserymen and Growers Association

Editor: Diane Relf, PPC Chair
Assistant Editor: Sheri T. Dorn

Address correspondence to Dr. Diane Relf, Chair, People-Plant Council, Department of Horticulture, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA 24061-0327. FAX: 703-231-3083. Telephone: 703-231-6254.

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