Rosenfield, L.W. 1992. Gardens and civic virtue in the Italian Renaissance. In: D. Relf (ed.). The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Italian Renaissance rhetoricians saw close affinities between verbal and horticultural arts. Discussions of rhetoric such as those by Castiglione and Alberti influenced the emerging aesthetics of garden design. This was due, in part, to the central role of rhetorical arts in promoting civic virtues.

This research investigates the impact of the rhetorical theory of epideictics (ceremonial displays) on recreational celebrations, with particular application to the design of gardens as places where the active citizen could acquire and enrich those talents most prized by the Renaissance republic.