Kaplan, S. 1992. The restorative environment: nature and human experience.  In: D. Relf (ed.). The role of horticulture inhuman well-being and social development: A national symposium. Timber Press, Portland, Ore.
In addition to the intuitive sense and literary works that speak to the importance of plants and natural settings to human well-being, there is growing empirical support that documents these beneficial aspects. The presentation focuses on a conceptual framework for understanding why the natural setting plays such a vital role. The question of what makes an environment serve a restorative function for a mentally fatigued individual turns out, upon careful examination, to be two distinct questions. First, what is the nature of mental fatigue; what causes it and what are its consequences? Second, what are the properties of and environment that has the capacity to help restore an individual to healthy, effective functioning? Drawing on considerable research, the answers to both of these questions provide fresh insight into the source of nature's remarkable power. The framework points to some direct applications for enhancing the restorative qualities of an environment; it also offers many useful directions for guiding further research in this important area.