Heerwagen, J.H. and G. Orians. 1986. Adaptations to windowlessness: A study of the use of visual decor in windowed and windowless offices. Environment and Behavior 18(5):623-639.
The authors tested three hypotheses dealing with the decoration of windowed and windowless offices. The first hypothesis was that to compensate for the deprivation, windowless offices should contain more visual materials than windowed offices. The second was that the visual materials in windowless offices should contain more landscape and cityscape scenes than windowed offices. The third hypothesis was that a nature content should dominate the visual material in a windowless office. The wall decor found in 75 offices on the campus of University of Washington supported hypotheses one and three. Hypothesis number two was not completed supported by the findings at the university, windowless offices did not contain more surrogate views than windowed offices.