UNITY ACCOMPLISHED BY:

  1. DOMINANCE/EMPHASIS

    DOMINANCE (FOCAL POINT) GAINS ATTENTION VIA VISUAL WEIGHT.

    EMPHASIS IS THE PROCESS OF DIFFERENTIATING THE MORE IMPORTANT FROM THE LESS IMPORTANT.

    THE GOAL IS TO SHOW IMPORTANCE OF AN AREA, ELEMENT(S), AND/OR TO PROVIDE INTEREST.

    EXAMPLE: A LARGE SHADE TREE CREATES ATTENTION DUE ITS SIZE. USING CONTRASTING SIZES, COLORS, TEXTURES ETC. CREATES EMPHASIS.

    A "SPECIMEN PLANT" HAS SIGNIFICANT VISUAL ASPECTS THAT RENDER IT THE CENTER OF ATTENTION EITHER SET APART FROM OTHER PLANTINGS OR AMONGST PLANTS.


  2. REPETITION

    REPLICATION IS THE DUPLICATION OF AN ELEMENT, SIZE, FORM, TEXTURE, COLOR, OR LINE THROUGHOUT A COMPOSITION.

    GOALS ARE SIMPLICITY AND UNIFICATION OF INDIVIDUAL ELEMENTS AND SPACES.

    EXAMPLE: MASSING SEVERAL ROUND-FORMED SPECIES AROUND A BUILDING


  3. VARIETY

    VARIETY IS ACCOMPLISHED BY USING DIFFERENT SIZES, FORMS, COLORS, TEXTURES.

    THE GOAL IS TO CREATE AND MAINTAIN INTEREST.

    EXAMPLE: PLACING SMALL UNDERSTORY TREES AMONGST LARGE SHADE TREES


  4. BALANCE

    BALANCE IS THE VISUAL AND PHYSICAL EQUILIBRIUM (SYMMETRY) OF ELEMENTS IN A COMPOSITION.

    THE GOAL IS TO CONVEY A SENSE OF STABILITY.

    EXAMPLE: PLACING SHADE TREES ON THE RIGHT AND LEFT OF BURRUSS HALL.


  5. SCALE (PROPORTION)

    SCALE IS THE RELATIVE SIZE OF AN OBJECT(S) OR SPACE COMPARED TO OTHER OBJECTS OR SPACES WITHIN A COMPOSITION.

    THE GOAL IS TO ESTABLISH GOOD COMPARATIVE RELATIONS BETWEEN UNITS.

    EXAMPLE: PLACE A SMALL TREE IN AN INTIMATE COURTYARD

 

SENSORY ASPECTS OF PLANTS
FOUR MAIN VISUAL ASPECTS OF PLANTS:

SIZE

FORM

COLOR

TEXTURE



SIZE
  • THE LARGER THE SIZE THE MORE VISUAL WEIGHT (CAPACITY TO ATTRACT THE EYE)

 

FORM (HABIT)
  • PLANT FORM IMPACTS SPACE PERCEPTION AND CAN LEAD THE EYE:
  • ROUNDED - NEUTRAL AND NON-DIRECTIONAL; GIVES UNITY TO DESIGN
  • SPREADING - FEELING OF BREADTH AND EXTENT; LEADS EYE HORIZONTALLY
  • COLUMNAR/FASTIGIATE - EMPHASIZES VERTICALITY AND HEIGHT; LEADS EYE UPWARD
  • PYRAMIDAL - A LOT OF VISUAL WEIGHT; LEADS EYE UPWARD
  • WEEPING - HAS A FLUID AND SOFTENING AFFECT; LEADS EYE DOWNWARD
  • PICTURESQUE - GNARLED, IRREGULAR, UNUSUAL SHAPE; ATTRACTS ATTENTION
  • MAN-MADE - ESPALIER, PLEACH, TOPIARY, TRAINED ONTO STRUCTURES

 

COLOR

  • VIA FOLIAGE (NEW, MATURE, FALL), BARK (TRUNK/STEM), FLOWERS, AND FRUIT
    (EMOTIONAL CHARACTERISTIC; THE DARKER/BRIGHTER THE COLOR = MORE VISUAL WEIGHT)

 

TEXTURE
  • VISUAL ROUGHNESS AND SMOOTHNESS OF A PLANT(S) IMPARTED BY FOLIAGE, STEMS, AND BRANCHES; TEXTURE PERCEPTION DIFFERS WITH DISTANCE AND SEASONS

 

OTHER SENSORY ASPECTS:

OLFACTORY ASPECTS
= FLOWERS, LEAVES, FRUITS, STEMS, ETC.
AUDITORY ASPECTS = LEAVES RUSTLING ON TREE
"TOUCH APPEAL" ASPECTS = SMOOTHNESS, ROUGHNESS
TASTE = SWEET, SOUR, HERBAL, ETC.
MOTION ASPECTS = BRANCHES SWAYING, LEAVES (AND FLOWERS) FLUTTERING AND FALLING

 

ARCHITECTURAL FUNCTIONS OF PLANTS

PLANTS SERVE MANY FUNCTIONS IN A LANDSCAPE. ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS IS TO CREATE SPACES

PLANTS CAN BE USED TO SERVE AS CEILINGS, WALLS, FLOORS, WINDOWS, AND DOORS.

  1. OVERHEAD PLANE

    TREE CANOPIES SERVE AS CEILINGS (ALSO VINES AND ARBORS)
    (AFFECTED BY SEASON AND FOLIAGE/BRANCH DENSITY)

  2. VERTICAL PLANE

    TREE TRUNKS, SHRUBS, AND VINES SERVE AS WALLS

  3. GROUND PLANE

    GROUND COVERS AND SMALL SHRUBS SERVE AS FLOORS