These are the abstracts from THE ROLE OF HORTICULTURE IN HUMAN WELL- BEING AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT: A National Symposium (1990 proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, edited by Diane Relf.


AU: Ahmedullah, M.
DT: 1991.
TL: Use of horticultural products in the advertising of non-horticultural products: reasons and implications
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well- Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR.
HO: HAVE.
AB: The advertisers of non-horticultural products, like telephone and computer manufacturers, have used horticultural products in their advertisements. These horticultural products include fruits and vegetables. This presentation deals with a survey of advertising agencies to find out the reasons for the popularity of horticultural products in advertising non-horticultural products. Although the project is not yet complete, some of the reasons that have been identified are: horticultural products like fruits are easily recognizable by the general public; they attract the attention easily; and the advertisers feel that the trends in advertising are changing. The project draws the attention of horticulturists to this phenomenon and analyzes the thinking of advertisers in capturing the attention of the general public by using fruits and vegetables in their advertisements.


AU: Airhart, Douglas and Kathleen M. Doutt.
DT: 1991.
TI: Measuring client improvement in vocational horticultural training.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR., p. 181-184.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Horticultural activities incorporated into training programs can improve behavioral and job skills of persons with a variety of disabilities (Daubert and Rothert, 1981; Hefley, 1973). These activities can be adapted to clients with day care, sheltered workshop, borderline competitive and competitive employment capabilities (Hudak, 1980). The horticultural industry has experienced a shortage of trained persons to fulfill the labor requirements (Roche, 1989). Vocational horticultural training programs can provide clients trained for entry level positions in horticulture (Hefley, 1973).
Successful programs incorporate prior appraisal of a client's adaptive behavior skills, a statement of training objectives, and, if necessary, a baseline task analysis of activities. A structured work routine is followed to avoid confusion, and experienced clients assist new clients which builds self-confidence. Clients practice skills that help them to gain a sense of job responsibility through the daily activities of plant care and greenhouse maintenance. They can improve the quality of their lives through a positive self-image and a degree of self-sufficiency (Airhart and Tristan, 1987). Few tools, however, exist for documenting improvement and maintenance of competitive skills in horticulture.


AU: Azar, James A. and Thomas Conroy.
DT: 1991.
TI: Experimental design issues that arise while measuring the effectiveness of horticultural therapy at a veterans administration medical center.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR., p.169-171.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Due to the difficulties in establishing a control group in a hospital setting, we have temporarily suspended our desire to conduct a true experimental study. The goal of our present project is to refine our outcome measures in order to quantify the changes that we feel occur with a psychiatric population. Our hypothesis is that patients experience improvements in such areas as general psychiatric functioning, self- esteem, socialization, and the ability to work with co-workers and supervisors as a function of their involvement in horticultural therapy. However, at this time we need to determine if we have the proper outcome measures to detect changes and if those changes are perceived differently by the various members in the therapeutic process (e.g., patient, HT staff, hospital psychologist). There would be little reason to encounter the obstacles involved in the establishment of a control group unless there was faith in the dependent variables that would be utilized. We believe that a longitudinal study with observations from several different agents in the therapeutic process would be a fruitful next step. We visualize the procedure consisting of patients filling out a self- esteem scale at the time they begin the program as well as the staff completing the Horticultural Therapy Questionnaire designed by the present authors and mentioned earlier. A psychologist outside of the program would provide a general assessment of psychiatric functioning utilizing the Global Assessment Scale (Endicott, et al., 1976). These measures would be repeated at several times (e.g., 30 days, 60 days, and discharge). A discharge interview would also be conducted to obtain the patient's perceptions of the positive and negative contributions of horticultural therapy in their overall treatment plan. It would be our hope to develop more appropriate future outcome measures from these exit interviews.


AU: Billing, J.
DT: 1991.
TL: Educational/sustainable environmental gardens in a man-made agrarian landscape
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Prior to the settlement of the Old Northwest Territory, the landscape was blanketed with a great, enclosed forest canopy interrupted by a series of clearly-defined open spaces. The openness of these isolated, treeless spaces were in sharp contrast to the enclosed, special feeling provided by the forest. To the new settlers the diversity of plants and the spaces they created were of little importance. Cleared, open land harbored wealth and capital; the forest and its environs was nothing more than another obstacle to overcome on the way to a better life. This presentation explores the relationship between early 1900s, historical field-mapped, plant community data of those isolated, open spaces and specific soils data developed in the 1930s. Understanding the correlation between these two factors would provide the opportunity for current, man-made agrarian landscapes to become much more diverse and regionally significant. These spaces have the opportunity to become a series of self-sustaining, environmental/educational gardens in association with the open agrarian landscape of the Midwest.


AU: Bonham, B.
DT: 1991.
TL: Philadelphia Green's Greene Countrie Towne model as an agent for community Development: Findings of case studies.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR.
HO: HAVE.
AB: The Philadelphia Green program works extensively in targeted neighborhoods in the city's low and moderate income sections to create Greene Countrie Townes (GCT) where vacant lots are transformed into flower and vegetable gardens and streets are lined with trees and wine barrels of shrubs and flowers. The goal is to effect a measure of community Development in physical terms, as well as sociological terms. The Pennsylvania Horticultural Society is currently undertaking a year-long study to assess the success of the program in achieving the social goals of developing leadership abilities, community pride, participation, organizational capacity, and other community Development activities. Consultants are analyzing the program's planning, organizing, and implementation approach to each of three GCT neighborhoods, and will suggest adapting these approaches in the future by giving more consideration to the existing social conditions. Research methods include site evaluations; interviews with gardeners, community leaders, and program staff; and an analysis of other community activities as spin-offs.
KW: garden - community - sociological effects - proceeding/presentation -


AU: Brogden, S. B.
DT: 1991.
TL: Chicago Botanic Garden examines its social and economic role in the city of Chicago and Cook county.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR.
KW: garden - sociological effects - economic effects - proceeding/presentation


AU: Browne, C. A.
DT: 1991.
TL: The role of nature for the promotion of well-being of the elderly.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Senior citizens represent the fastest growing segment of the American population. The demand for services for the elderly has increased dramatically in relation to housing, leisure activities, and long-term care. As a result, retirement communities within the US are proliferating at a rapid rate. Many of these communities have substantially-landscaped grounds and outdoor amenities; however, most have yet to be assessed as to whether these landscaped settings have a positive impact on the residents. In fact, our current, general knowledge about the impact the out-of-doors has on the aged in relation to well-being is extremely limited. The purpose of this paper is to report on findings from a research project (funded by the National Endowment of the Arts) which is directed at understanding the extent to which outdoor settings within retirement communities promote psychological, social, and physical well-being. Specifically, this paper will address five areas in which nature may have an impact on the promotion of well-being: aesthetics, environmental stimulation, social interaction, motivation for physical exercise, and self-expression. The author utilized a multi-method research approach including literature review, 12 site visitations (indicative post-occupancy evaluations), two questionnaires -- one administered to the management and the other to the residents, and interviews with selected residents to determine their outdoor visual and spatial preferences.
KW: nature - elderly - proceeding/presentation -


AU: Butterfield, B.
DT: 1991.
TL: National survey of attitudes toward plants and gardening.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR.
AB: VPI&SU in cooperation with the National Garden Association developed a survey conducted by Gallop to establish base-line information on people's attitudes toward horticultural plants in urban environments and motivations for gardening. Their response will be analyzed relative to demographics and response to other gardening activity questions commissioned by the National Garden Association.
KW: attitudes - methodology - proceeding/presentation -


AU: Chambers, Nancy K. and Patrick Neal Williams.
DT: 1991.
TI: Developing a new computer-accessed data base for horticultural therapy research at Rusk Institute.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR., p.172-174.
HO: HAVE.
AB: The Howard A. Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine was established in 1948 as part of New York University Medical Center. It was the first facility in the world devoted solely to the rehabilitation of individuals with physical disabilities, either congenital or acquired through illness or injury. The patients stay on average two months, but this can be extended depending on the individual's disability. Patients enter the Institute after they are medically stable from conditions such as stroke, head trauma, brain surgery, hip surgery, spinal cord injury, lung disorders, and amputations.
At Rusk, patients undergo physical and occupational therapies, speech, therapeutic recreation, vocational training, and psychological support. They also receive orthotic and prosthetic services as needed. The collective goal of these treatments is to help individuals obtain their maximum degree of independence--physically, emotionally, socially, and vocationally.
Horticultural therapy has been an integral part of patient treatment at Rusk for more than fifteen years. This program currently averages over 7,500 patient therapy hours a year. Individuals in the treatment sessions perform all horticultural tasks necessary to maintain the Enid A. Haupt Glass Garden. They also select and propagate plants for themselves. Goals in the horticultural therapy program are defined for each patient. They focus on functional areas, such as fine and gross motor dexterity and coordination, cognitive and perceptual skills, social interaction, problem-solving, and the ability to cope psychologically and emotionally.


AU: Cordts, C.
DT: 1991.
TL: Community gardening as job training: economic impacts
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well- Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR.
HO: HAVE.
AB: The Green Industry adds millions of dollars to the Colorado economy annually, but suffers from a lack of trained entry- level workers. Research is needed to determine if the education and training currently available in horticulture and landscaping meet the entry-level standards of the industry. In particular, secondary and community college curricula must be analyzed to determine commonalities, and to translate course content to competency measures. These competencies in turn must be referenced to those segments of the industry currently testing entry-level employees to certify skill levels. The transition from the education and training programs to the labor force has not received the attention necessary to address the shortage of trained entry-level Green Industry workers. Learning styles of participants in horticulture/landscaping vocational programs and publicly funded training programs need to be identified as these styles affect participation. With a competency-based curriculum, accurately tied to learning style and industry expectations, education and training programs in horticulture and landscaping can supply a steady source of entry-level Green Industry employees. Education and training outcomes can be measured as they impact the labor force.


AU: Cremone, Jr., J. C. and R. P. Doherty.
DT: 1991.
TL: Vita brevis: Moral symbolism from nature.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Plants have frequently been used in paintings as potent vehicles for symbolism. Artists have often utilized flowers to convey religious, moral, or social lessons. Such floral symbolism include the lily illustrating purity, the carnation representing fidelity, and the tulip indicating greed. Religious doctrines were also given botanical symbols: wheat became a metaphor for life, jasmine symbolized Divine love, and the passionflower recalled the instruments of the Passion of Christ. This symbolic use of botanical elements in art to convey moral messages and social statements will be discussed and richly illustrated. Particular attention will be given to the Dutch vanitas still-lifes of the seventeenth century. In addition to displaying botanical accuracy and aesthetic quality, these painted bouquets were often symbolic of the transience of life and sensual pleasure. Painted insects devoured tromp l' oeil leaves, and roses passed their temporal beauty: Ars longa, vita brevis. Finally, examples from such artists as Georgia O'Keefe and Andy Warhol will be illustrated to consider the intriguing question: Can symbolic moral and social critiques be found in the twentieth century flower paintings?
KW: history - nature - proceeding/presentation -


AU: Doxon, L. E.
DT: 1991.
TL: Home gardens in honduras
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well- Being and Social Development:A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Many projects promoting home gardening have been done in Honduras, but only a few have had lasting results. This researcher was invited to Honduras to examine why these home garden projects were unsuccessful. Previous projects were approached with the assumption that Hondurans do not have home gardens. This researcher discovered intensively cultivated home gardens around almost every house. Seventy-five food species were produced in these home gardens. They were not generally recognized as home gardens by Development workers because the food species were dominated by ornamental species. Ornamentals were found to have significant social importance in Honduras. For many Hondurans, these flowers were the only attempt to beautify their surroundings. Recommendations were to promote improvements in varieties and culture of the plants already there and to include ornamentals in the garden plans rather than trying to use standards from another place and climate to develop project plans.


AU: Dyck, R. G., M. Bruun, and A. Mukherjee.
DT: 1991.
TL: Regional connectedness: urban, rural, and primeval.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Selected studies of regional connectedness, including the work of Benton MacKaye (The New Exploration: A Philosophy of Regional Planning) and Robert D. Yaro (Dealing with Change in the Connecticut River Valley: A Design Manual for Conservation and Development) will be compared with the work of Charles A. Lewis ("Healing the Urban Environment: A Person/Plant Viewpoint") and other work on urban residential landscaping to find elements of commonality which may help link countryside to central city and positively influence physical health and perceptions of personal well-being in regional and urban populations. Applicability of findings to statewide regional growth management and affordable housing in the Commonwealth of Virginia will be explored as a basis for planning further research.
KW: planning - urban - rural - Proceeding/presentation -


AU: Eberbach, C.
DT: 1991.
TL: Children's gardens: the meaning of place.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Children experience the world differently from adults, and gardens are no exception. This presentation will review a study of how elementary school-age children perceive gardens. What are children's preferences for place elements, colors, activities, and design? Moreover, how are these perceptions influenced by a child's stage of Development? It is my argument that if children's perceptions of gardens actually influence the design of gardens, children will be more likely to play and participate in garden environments. The second part to this presentation will demonstrate the practical application of this research. A description of how the Children's Garden at Longwood Gardens (Kennett Square, PA) included children's perceptions into its purpose and design will be presented. To conclude, areas for future research and methods for practical application will be identified.
KW: children - garden - Proceeding/presentation -


AU: Evans, M. R., and H. Malone.
DT: 1991.
TL: People and plants: a case study in the hotel industry.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR. pp.220-222.
HO: HAVE.
AB: This case study explores the impact of formal gardens and landscaping in one of the leading convention hotels in the U.S. In this hotel, two large formal gardens have been a major contributing factor in generating additional room revenue and producing an adequate return on the horticulture investment, as well as covering annual plant maintenance costs. The gardens have been a differentiating product attribute and allowed this hotel to enjoy one of the highest room occupancy rates in the country.
KW: marketing - economic benefits - tourism - Proceeding/presentation -


AU: Francis, M., C. Cordts, and board members of the American Community Gardening Association.
DT: 1991.
TL: A research agenda for the impact of urban greening.
PB: In: D. Relf ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR. pp.70-74.
HO: HAVE.
AB: The American Community Gardening Association through its board, members, and a panel of experts is currently developing a research agenda for urban greening. The agenda is intended to encourage and inspire research and evaluation on the impact of urban gardening and greening. The presentation will consist of the work in progress and solicit criticism and suggestions for additional critical issues and questions. Categories of the research agenda currently being developed include theoretical and philosophical approaches, historical aspects, social and psychological benefits, cultural meanings, aesthetic and visual quality, economic costs and benefits, Development issues, control and permanency, research methods, public policies and programs, and urban design implications.
KW: Proceeding/presentation - research priorities -


AU: Friedlaender, B.
DT: 1991.
TL: Celebrating city gardeners
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR.
HO: HAVE.
AB: "The sun and moon cling to heaven, and grain, grass and trees cling to the earth" - The I Ching Li/The Clinging Fire Fire clings to the wood it burns. Its light and heat is the burning of the wood The Garden is the wood of the gardener The Gardener's light comes from making the garden. Trust is the wood of the creative process, Its flowering depends on the trust that grows between participants. From a place of openness, one can go to the unknown places of one's being to bring forth a making that is alive. City gardeners are able to see the earth through piles of rubble and concrete. With their hands, they liberate the buried earth to create gardens that bear food for the body, flowers for the spirit. Philadelphia city gardeners share their vision of the possible garden in the impossible environment of alienated city blocks. They open their hearts and hands to work the earth, clinging to it as fire clings to wood. The seed on the wind does not discriminate where it falls. It finds a home even in the crack of the concrete. This is what a city gardener knows.


AU: Grueber, K. L.
DT: 1991.
TL: An Extension approach to implement research results in the flowering plant industry.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 213-215.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Results of research on the roles which plants play in human well-being and behavior should have significant impact on the greenhouse and floral industries. Results may affect the crops produced, product quality, identification of new markets, marketing strategies, etc. Because a role of the extension specialist is to gather, interpret, and disseminate information, the specialist should play a significant role in reporting people-plant interaction data to appropriate industries. Plans for the collection, interpretation, and dissemination of results to the greenhouse and floral industries will be suggested in the presentation using flow charts and example research projects. With the appropriate valid information in hand, these industries will be able to supply floral products which better meet consumer needs and wants. This should result in increased sales of floral products.
KW: Proceeding/presentation - extension - industry - marketing - flowers -


AU: Grueber, K. L., M. R. Evans
DT: 1991.
TL: The impact of floral products in restaurants
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 213-215.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Many restaurants provide floral or plant products on or near tables in restaurants, presumably to improve the ambiance. Such products may be live, silk, or plastic, and may vary in quality, size, and impact on the customer. A research project will be described which explores the effects of floral products on customer attitude and behavior. Potential products include live flowers of variable quantity and quality, live plants, and artificial flowers. Potential impacts include customer satisfaction, purchasing, tipping, and repeat business. Methods of assessing economic gain/loss, and of returning the gathered information to the restaurant and floral industries will also be discussed.


AU: Grueber, K. L., E. S. Geller
DT: 1991.
TL: Interdisciplinary educational efforts in horticulture
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 213-215.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Students interested in pursuing careers in horticulture should be made aware of the perceptions and desires of the consumer of horticultural products. However, both instructor and student may be ignorant of proper procedures and protocol to determine consumer needs. In this educational project, instructors of Greenhouse Management and instructors of Human Psychology have planned a cooperative, laboratory experience for their students which will expose the students to the principles of each course. Horticulture students will grow and supply flowering crops of variable size and quality; psychology students will develop a survey questionnaire; and students will work cooperatively to gather and interpret information. Project description, procedure, and evaluations will be discussed, as well as the impact which interdisciplinary laboratory projects might have on undergraduate students.


AU: Hill, Deborah.
DT: 1991.
TI: Identifying research needs for urban forestry in Quito, Ecuador.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR., p.90-92.
HO: HAVE.
AB: A change in the city government of Quito in 1988 brought in a mayor who promoted urban forestry and natural resources. As a result, Fundacion Natura (FN - an indigenous environmental group), the U.S. Peace Corps (PC) and a U.S. grassroots exchange program (Partners in the Americas (NAPA)) worked with municipal workers on a program for "arborizing" Quito. Major problems include lack of resources (financial/equipment/personnel), lack of appropriate knowledge and training, and lack of public awareness of the importance of urban trees.
Currently, there is little or no baseline data concerning the ecological, economic, and/or sociological/health aspects of an urban forest. Fundacion Natura just completed a tree list of potential species for urban forestry, but there is no tree inventory. Laws set aside 10% of every neighborhood for "greenspace" but do not specify whether for parks, street trees, or both. My NAPA work with FN and PC taught me how little urban forestry was based on research, as well as how important trees were for landslide prevention on their highly erodible volcanic soils and for the availability of potable water, especially in marginal areas. Research is needed both on the ecological/sociological impacts of tree planting and the economics of tree management in the existing urban "forest" (maintenance vs. removal/replacement). Comparative ecological and socioeconomic studies on treed and treeless neighborhoods would be particularly useful for encouraging financial commitment to the continuing arborization of Quito.


AU: Honeyman, M. K.
DT: 1991.
TL: Vegetation and stress: a comparison study of varying amounts of vegetation in countryside and urban scenes.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 143-145.
HO: HAVE.
AB: This study examines the common assumption that exposure to features found in the natural environment alleviate human stress. Investigation was accomplished through measuring psychological effects produced by viewing varying amounts of green vegetation. Three group of participants viewed colored slides of scenes with a particular content: 1) green countryside; 2) urban without vegetation; and 3) urban with vegetation. The Zuckerman Inventory of Personal Reactions (ZIPERS) was administered before and after the slide presentations in order to measure any change in participant's stress levels. Data analysis showed significant differences in pre-test and post-test stress levels in all three of the groups. The most significant difference was shown between the groups that viewed that urban scenes with vegetation and the urban scenes without vegetation. The post-test scores were significantly higher in terms of positive affect for the group that viewed the urban scenes with vegetation when compared to the groups that viewed the urban scenes without vegetation. From these results it appears that the introduction of green vegetation into the urban landscape may be of important psychological benefit to humans. Information of this type may influence urban designers to make design decisions with conscientious consideration to their fellow citizens' psychological well-being.
KW: Proceeding/presentation - stress - simulation - rural - urban -


AU: Hoover, Sally.
DT: 1991.
TI: Research: an imperative for horticultural therapy and third-party payments.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR., p.175-177.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Increasingly, the profession of horticultural therapy faces a very serious and demanding challenge: to prove to the medical community the effectiveness of horticultural activities as treatment interventions -- in short, that horticultural therapy "works." When this can be shown, it can potentially set off a series of chain reactions that will have a lasting impact on the profession itself.
The culmination of the chain reaction is third-party payments: payments from public and private insurance for therapeutic services rendered. What sets off the reaction is a body of research quantifying the effects of horticultural therapy. In order to qualify for third-party reimbursement, horticultural therapists must be able to document that their work is important and unique, to show why insurance -- or anyone else -- should pay for their services at a time when the medical community is under severe financial constraints.


AU: Hull, R. B., and G. Vigo.
DT: 1991.
TL: Urban nature, place attachment, health, and well-being.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 149-152.
KW: Proceeding/presentation - urban - nature - health - psychological effects


- AU: Janick, J.
DT: 1991.
TL: Horticulture and human culture.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium. Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 19-27.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Earth is a plant-oriented planet and the green plant is fundamental to all other life. Plants provide the basis of our energy balance, our atmosphere, and our food supply. Agriculture, the management of plants that sustain us, forms the basis of our social, cultural, religious, and legal systems. The increasing urbanization of humanity in the twentieth century has obscured the intimate connection between humans and plant life. This relationship has been neglected at great peril for our well-being as a species. The new role of horticulture will be to re-establish the bond between plants and people.
KW: Proceeding/presentation - culture - history -


AU: Kaplan, R.
DT: 1992.
TL: The psychological benefits of nearby nature. (Copies of this article are available from the USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest, Experimental Station, Building C, Room 104, 5801 N. Pulaski Road, Chicago, IL 60640.)
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 125-133.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Deals with how people relate to nearby nature and also consider some of the differences among people and the implications that these differences suggest for enhancing well-being.
KW: Proceeding/presentation - nature - psychological effects -


AU: Kaplan, S.
DT: 1992.
TL: The restorative environment: Nature and human experience. (Copies of this article are available from the USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest, Experimental Station, Building C, Room 104, 5801 N. Pulaski Road, Chicago, IL 60640.)
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 134-142.
AB: In addition to the intuitive sense and literary works that speak to the importance of plants and natural settings to human well-being, there is growing empirical support that documents these beneficial aspects. The presentation focuses on a conceptual framework for understanding why the natural setting plays such a vital role. The question of what makes an environment serve a restorative function for a mentally fatigued individual turns out, upon careful examination, to be two distinct questions. First, what is the nature of mental fatigue; what causes it and what are its consequences? Second, what are the properties of and environment that has the capacity to help restore an individual to healthy, effective functioning? Drawing on considerable research, the answers to both of these questions provide fresh insight into the source of nature's remarkable power. The framework points to some direct applications for enhancing the restorative qualities of an environment; it also offers many useful directions for guiding further research in this important area.
KW: Proceeding/presentation - restorative experience - nature -


AU: Lewis, C. A.
DT: 1991.
TL: Effects of plants and gardening in creating interpersonal and community well-being.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings). Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 55-65.
HO: HAVE.
AB: The presence of plants and plant-centered activities such as gardening, promote human well-being. An examination of the ways that plants enter into human experience and the responses they engender, helps to delineate the benefits produced. In community settings, such as public housing, low income residential neighborhoods, and schools, gardening is an effective technique for improving personal, social, and physical environments. Examples from low income areas of New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago are shown to provide human benefits and the satisfactions of enhanced self-esteem, increased sociability, reduction in vandalism, cleaner streets, painted buildings, and revitalized neighborhoods. Consideration of gardening as an interactive process between people and plants helps to reveal areas of involvement which are effective in producing human well-being. Plants and their growth patterns are seen as encouraging human involvement and reinforcing self-esteem. The evidence is primarily anecdotal; therefore, gardening is not as universally accepted and utilized for social and community Development as its benefits might warrant. To convince governmental bodies of its value will require research findings which clearly document the effectiveness of plants and planting activities in producing social and economic benefits.
KW: Proceeding/presentation -


AU: Lohr, V. I.
DT: 1991.
TL: The contribution of interior plants to relative humidity in an office.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings). Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 117-119.
HO: HAVE.
AB: This paper will review the effects of relative humidity on human health and comfort and discuss the effects of adding plants to humidify air. The relative humidity in the air inside buildings can be extremely low. This is especially true when buildings are being heated, because the relative humidity drops as the air is heated if no supplemental moisture is added. The relative humidity in heated buildings is often below 20% and well below the range recommended for human health and comfort. The relative humidity of the air in the winter in an office without plants will be compared to the relative humidity in the office when plants are present. The office is in building where relative humidity of the air in the winter is often as low as 5%.


AU: MacKay, M. B. and D. J. Chalmers.
DT: 1991.
TL: A quantitative approach to the description of the qualities of ornamental plants, with particular reference to plant use in the rural environment.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well- Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 113-116.
HO: HAVE.
KW: Proceeding/presentation - rural - Australia -


AU: Matsuo, E.
DT: 1991.
TL: What we may learn through horticultural activity.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings). Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 146-148.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Man has two ways of being creative: by fostering life and by acquiring objects. The former originated in the maintenance of race and the latter in the maintenance of body. These make it possible for us to live as human beings. Growing plants exclusively on a commercial basis should be named 'Hortonomy', which is done with the concept and behavior of acquiring. Growing plants for pleasure could be called the typical 'Horticulture', for it is based mostly on the concept and behavior of fostering. In other words, this means that 'Hortonomy' mainly provides us with the concept and behavior of acquiring and 'Horticulture' that of fostering. However, `Horticulture' provides us not only with the concept and behavior of fostering but also that of acquiring through such means as harvesting and/or admiring horticultural products and accomplishments which are obtained by our own efforts. These concepts and behaviors of fostering and acquiring are what we may learn through horticultural activity in our daily like. Thus, 'Horticulture' satisfies both requirements for being creative. That is, 'Horticulture', by itself enables us to live as Man should live. This is why horticulture becomes 'Hort-therapy' and can be a fascinating hobby.
KW: Proceeding/presentation - philosophy - theory -


AU: Mattson, Richard.
DT: 1991.
TI: Exploring a specific application: prescribing health benefits through horticultural activities
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR., p.161-168.
HO: HAVE.
AB: As I begin this discussion on specific applications of horticulture to special population groups, I am reminded of the story concerning a 5-year- old girl who was writing a short letter to her friend. She stopped and asked her mother, "How do you spell the word, `whale'?" Her mother spelled out the letters, "W..H..A..L..E," then began wondering why her child would be using this particular word. She asked her daughter, "Why did you want to use the word `whale'?" The child responded, "I'm writing a letter to my friend, telling her to get whale." Obviously, she was from southern Kansas, but she was concerned about her friend's health and she was taking action.
Just like the message in this child's letter, we also need to be concerned with issues relating to wellness and improving the quality of life. We need to begin the process of letting people know about one of the "best keep secrets" around...gardening is one of the most healthful activities known.
Professional horticultural therapists are capable of helping special people adapt, cope, develop, and expand their personal abilities and potentials. We need to begin the process of spreading the news that horticulture is good for you. Students at Kansas State University are using the phase, "If it's horticulture, it's therapy." A retired professor in the Department of Horticulture used to say, "Eventually, horticulture is something that grows on you." He was, of course, a turfgrass specialist.


AU: McDonald, B. G. and A. J. Bruce.
DT: 1991.
TL: Can you have a Merry Christmas without a tree?
PB: In D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings). Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 38-42.
HO: HAVE.
KW: Proceeding/presentation - ritual - holiday -


AU: Ness, C., L. Bloom, M. Miller, D. Relf
DT: 1991.
TL: Potential of interactive video systems as a research tool
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well- Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Public Information Interactive Systems are being used in Virginia to reach Extension clientele. Interactive video systems combine video, slides, graphics, audio, and text to provide a multi-modal, user-driven information delivery system. Kiosks have been placed in 12 locations throughout Virginia including selected malls, libraries, and one community college with Public Information Systems developed by the Extension Design and Development Group at Virginia Tech. Interactive video systems offer a unique opportunity to collect research data from a geographically diverse audience in conjunction with its educational purpose. We currently keep statistics allowing us to determine which Extension information is most sought after by the public. The computer can automatically keep track of the number of touches to the screen or record answers to questions in the program. Horticulture information available on the public information systems includes a "Houseplants" program with information on 131 cut flowers and houseplants. A program on selecting landscape plants contains information on 141 trees, shrubs, vines and ground covers. By simply touching the screen, the user may browse through photographs of plants, move through fact sheets, use the landscape plant sorter, and request print out on all plants in the program. The horticulture program has become the most popular of the 8 information areas. Applications to research on human issues in horticulture could include collecting data on user preferences in various areas, including plant material, landscape design features, cut flowers, sounds associated with the garden, etc. Statistics are easy to collect by counting touches made to the screen. Surveys or questionnaires including demographic information could be included with appropriate slides and graphics to illustrate the point in question.


AU: Neuberger, Konrad. R.
DT: 1991.
TI: Horticultural therapy in a psychiatric hospital - picking the fruit.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR., p.185-188.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Langenfeld "Country Hospital" is a psychiatric state hospital for most psychiatric disorders. It lies in West Germany and is well-known for some innovations.
Each patient is "faced" by a medical service team, consisting of nurses, physicians, a psychologist, a social worker and a work therapist. In Germany, Horticultural Therapy is classified as a form of work therapy. H.T. in Our Hospital -- Horticultural Therapy is prescribed by the ward physician or psychologist for rehabilitative reasons (22%) or simply to help structure the patient's daily routine (78%). Twelve of our forty wards prescribe H.T. Therefore, a regular consultation of all participants is hardly manageable. But as a horticultural work therapy unit, we have lots of time to spend with each patient--between two and six hours daily, depending on our contract. Three Horticultural Therapists care for up to 15 patients. We produce vegetables and sell them; beginners receive special attention for diagnostic purposes. The work style is mainly task- and group-oriented.


AU: Parker, D. C.
DT: 1991.
TL: The corporate garden.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings). Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 28-31.
HO: HAVE.
AB: In the last twenty years, Corporate America has increasingly supported the arts and cultural activities in their communities and around the country. This is motivated as much by self-interest as by financial incentives in the form of tax deductions. In the area of horticulture, this is demonstrated by well- developed grounds, public access, and the attitude that gardens and well-groomed, park-like settings enhance the corporate image. Like the wealthy patrons of the past, corporations are the modern-day Medici who are building establishments which improve the workplace and provide benefits to the community and the corporation. This research paper will examine factors associated with public gardens at corporate headquarters. Since each corporation is unique, a variety of case studies were examined to demonstrate that corporations have the resources and opportunities to patronize the arts, to extend their philanthropy, and to reflect positive images in their communities with gardens.
KW: Proceeding/presentation - corporate garden -


AU: Patel, I. C.
DT: 1991.
TL: Socioeconomic impact of community gardening in an urban setting.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings). Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 84-87.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Across the US, more and more land is becoming unavailable for public use. It is estimated that over 20 percent of US land is held by corporations, much of it around cities and suburbs where the need for gardening space is acute. A 1982 Gallup Poll revealed over 3 million Americans garden at community sites, an additional 7 million would garden if land were available, and 76 percent of those polled would like gardens to be a permanent part of their communities. Community gardening is a multi-purpose activity. It cuts across social, economic, and racial barriers; brings together people of all age and backgrounds; and inspires support from neighbors, city, county, businesses, and government. This paper discusses the socio-economic effects of community gardening on the individuals, families, and businesses living and working in Newark, NJ. New touches of green are added to the city scene; and garbage-filled, vacant lots are transformed into gardens of vegetables, small fruits, and herbs. Community gardening leads to community Development and greater community spirit, empowering neighbors to produce food and strengthen neighborhoods. A setting for education and enjoyment is provided for all. School children learn the basics of horticulture and enjoy "getting their hands dirty." Economic opportunities are also created -- fresh vegetables and fruits improve nutrition in family diets and reduce food bills. Neighborhood appearances are improved and real estate value rises.
KW: Proceeding/presentation - garden - sociological effects - economic value - urban -


AU: Randall, K., C. A. Shoemaker, P. D. Relf, and E. S. Geller.
DT: 1991.
TL: Effects of plantscapes in an office environment on worker satisfaction.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings). Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 106-109.
HO: HAVE.
KW: Proceeding/presentation - office - attitude -


AU: Randall, K., J. E.Healy, D. Relf, E. S. Geller
DT: 1991.
TL: The relationship of plants to lifestyle and social support
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings). Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 106-109.
HO: HAVE.
AB: The Lifestyle and Social Support Questionnaire, a test designed to measure various sources of social support and risk behaviors for university screening, incorporated four questions about people's interaction with and opinions about plants. This questionnaire was then administered to 483 students at a large university during the summer session. The results of this study, indicating that most people like plants, were shown.


AU: Relf, D.
DT: 1992.
TL: The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development.
PB: Timber Press, Portland.
HO: HAVE.


AU: Relf, D., ed.
DT: 1991.
TL: The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings).
PB: Timber Press, Portland, OR.
HO: HAVE.
KW: Proceeding/presentation - symposium -


AU: Relf, P. D., R. P. Madsen
DT: 1991.
TL: Interdisciplinary research team of the office of consumer horticulture (irtch): a research approach
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well- Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Interdisciplinary research is imperative for conducting research on human issues in horticulture. The Development of the Interdisciplinary Research Team of the Office of Consumer Horticulture (IRTCH) has proven to be very effective here at Virginia Tech. The members of this group have sponsored a workshop on campus with approximately 100 participants and have been instrumental in conducting this symposium. The Team was established with the support of the Director of the Agricultural Research Station and the Dean of Research, and currently has 19 members from across the campus. Research projects are being conducted within several disciplines which will develop data of value to the horticulture community.


AU: Relf, D.
DT: 1991.
TL: Conducting the research and putting it into action.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings). Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 193-206.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Research on the role of horticulture in human well-being and social Development can have application among diverse groups, and must, by its nature, be interdisciplinary. Research teams composed of horticulturists, psychologists, sociologists, geographers, botanists, space planners, or other related professionals will play an important role in the future of research in this area.
Another important aspect of developing such research is establishing a network or consortium to ensure that the findings will be applicable and distributed to a wide range of users. Important groups in that network include researchers, communicators, suppliers of horticulture products and services, government and social service agencies, as well as trade and professional associations in horticulture, human services, human resources, marketing, and other fields.
KW: Proceeding/presentation - marketing -


AU: Reuter, J. W. and C. M. Reuter
DT: 1991.
TL: Community gardening: a model of integration and well-being
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well- Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR., p.88.
HO: HAVE
AB: In 1986, The Bancroft School, an organization serving adults and children with Developmental disabilities, joined in a partnership with the borough of Haddonfield, New Jersey and the local garden club to create a community gardening project entitled "Lantern Lane." The impetus for the project was threefold: 1) the borough of Haddonfield wished to beautify its business district, and the area known as Lantern Lane stood out as an eyesore, 2) the Garden Club of Haddonfield wished to participate in borough beautification but needed personnel and/or technical assistance, and 3) Bancroft, while it had a well-developed horticulture therapy department for many years, wished to focus on community integration and community service, particularly with its population of older adults. From the outset, the project seemed to meet the needs and desires of all three organizations. The borough would make progress on the beautification of its business district, particularly Lantern Lane; the garden club would fulfill its commitment to the borough to maintain the mountain community gardens; and Bancroft would help the people it served to become further integrated into the community. As staff members at Bancroft, we were both particularly excited about the chance for the people we serve to participate in a project in the center of the community where they would be highly visible, where they would be identified as being involved in the community, and where they would be viewed as people with "abilities." Our hope was that their involvement would be prized by the community, thereby enhancing their personal self-esteem. On a philosophical level, we felt that it was important that individuals with Developmental disabilities be seen and recognized as "givers" and not just "receivers" of services. This project would be a vehicle for demonstrating to those we serve how to give of themselves, their time and talents, to others and to their community, while experiencing the inherent satisfaction that comes from giving. It would also demonstrate to local citizens ways in which individuals who have Developmental disabilities can give of their time and talents to enhance the lives of their neighbors and their community.
The medium for this education was horticulture, and all the interactions between people and plants was horticulture therapy.


AU: Rice, Jay Stone.
DT: 1991.
TI: The effect of horticultural therapy on the self-concept of county jail inmates.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR., p.190.
HO: HAVE.
AB: This study will explore the impact of horticultural therapy on San Francisco County Jail inmates. An organic farm and greenhouse have been developed as part of San Francisco's "new generation" program and treatment facility.
This facility reflects a new direction in corrections which emphasizes a positive environment and direct supervision by custodial and treatment staff. The role of the horticultural therapist and the use of the natural environment as a model for growth and responsibility will be discussed. This study will address the relevance of poor self-concept and low self- esteem as important representative characteristics of county jail inmates. Research measures will explore the effect of this horticultural therapy program on the self-concept of participating inmates.


AU: Rosenfield, L. W.
DT: 1991.
TL: Gardens and civic virtue in the Italian Renaissance.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings). Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 32-37.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Italian Renaissance rhetoricians saw close affinities between verbal and horticultural arts. Discussions of rhetoric such as those by Castiglione and Alberti influenced the emerging aesthetics of garden design. This was due, in part, to the central role of rhetorical arts in promoting civic virtues. This research investigates the impact of the rhetorical theory of epideictics (ceremonial displays) on recreational celebrations, with particular application to the design of gardens as places where the active citizen could acquire and enrich those talents most prized by the Renaissance republic.
KW: garden - eclectic - history -


AU: Shareef, R.
DT: 1991.
TL: Clearing the air: horticulture as a quality-of-work-life intervention.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings). Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 110-112.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Quality-of-Work-Life interventions have become popular solutions to the host of maladies that plaque American organizations. Traditionally, QWL ventures have attempted to enhance "employee well-being and organizational effectiveness" through participative management and/or systemic system changes. Because of this emphasis on structural processes, the QWL movement has overlooked the effect poor air quality has on employee quality-of-working-life. The human relations approach to QWL does, however, attempt to improve workplace amenities. Based on the theory that "satisfaction causes productivity," this approach seeks to remove causes of employee dissatisfaction from the environment. Significantly, a recent EPA report found that indoor air quality may be the most serious environmental threat to employee health, satisfaction, and productivity. What can be done to cure our "sick buildings"? Studies conducted by NASA show that plants clear the air of toxic pollutants including radon gas, benzene, and formaldehyde. Clearly, quality-of-air should become a priority on the QWL agenda. This paper suggests that research be conducted to determine the effect plants have on three widely-accepted QWL variables: satisfaction, turnover, and absenteeism. Moreover, it is suggested that a mixed methodology, utilizing both quantitative and qualitative data, be used in conducting this research.
KW: Proceeding/presentation - indoor air quality - office -


AU: Shearer, R. R.
DT: 1991.
TL: Beyond romanticism: the Significance of plants as form in the history of art.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings). Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 216-219.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Beginning with Leonardo da Vinci, Ms. Shearer explores several of art history's most important artists and their inspiration from plants. For painters like Mondrian, "the Father of Abstraction", plant forms represented more than a 19th century sentimentality. They were objects of "universality" from which natures most fundamental principles could be deciphered. Mondrian's breakthrough work in geometric abstraction, Shearer argues, occurred because of his study of plants, as opposed to the human figure which has dominated art history. Shearer also discusses her observation of an almost complete absence of plants in the history of sculpture. Up until the late 20th century, 3-dimensional plants could only be found in the decorative or architectural arts, not rendered in sculpture as serious subject matter. Shearer highlights the important influence of society's changing views of nature in art history. At the beginning of this century when modern art was born, nature was viewed as random and capricious, something to be subdued by man for the sake of greater technology and this view was expressed in man- made (Euclidean) geometric paintings. Ironically, the recent discovery of fractal geometry has demonstrated that universality does exist in nature, that seemingly unrelated diverse natural forms, i.e. plants, clouds, mountains, snowflakes, reveal hidden, similar patterns. Shearer speculates on the potential importance of fractal geometry in the future of art.
KW: Proceeding/presentation - art - history -


AU: Shoemaker, C. A., D. Relf, and C. Bryant.
DT: 1991.
TL: The role of flowers in the bereavement process.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings). Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 43-46.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Funeral rituals have been reported to facilitate the grieving process by helping make sense of death and lend reality to the loss of a loved one. No research has specifically looked at the role flowers play in the grieving process. The objectives of this research project are to determine who is sending flowers and plants to the bereaved; determine when, during the grieving process, flowers and plants are being sent; and determine why plants and flowers are being sent to the bereaved. Surveys and interviews will be conducted with funeral professionals and the recently bereaved. Through this research, we can begin to understand how sympathy flowers and plants affect the grieving process and how flowers and plants at the funeral service are perceived and remembered by families and friends of the deceased. At a more basic level, information from this research can help identify ways that plants and flowers can improve the quality of life, lessen the pain of death, and give greater insight into the nature of man and his interaction with/dependency on the natural environment.
KW: Proceeding/presentation - bereavement - flowers -


AU: Tristan, John and Lucy Nguyen-Hong-Nhiem.
DT: 1991.
TI: Horticultural therapy and Asian refugee resettlement.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR., p.189.
HO: HAVE.
AB: The acculturation difficulties of Asian refugees were alleviated through the use of horticultural therapy activities. Vocational training in garden and greenhouse operations taught marketable skills in an environment similar to the tropical homeland of origin. Adjustment stress, fear, and culture shock became manageable and resettlement goals were accomplished.


AU: Ulrich, R. S. and R. Parsons.
DT: 1991.
TL: Influences of passive experiences with plants on individual well-being and health.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings). Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 93-105.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Focuses on the influences of visual contacts with plants on psychological and physiological well-being, and on health- related indicators. Particular emphasis is given to stress- reducing benefits of viewing vegetation.
KW: Proceeding/presentation - research - commentary/position paper/reviews - psychological well-being - stress - physical health - aesthetics -


AU: Williams, Sara.
DT: 1991.
TI: Evaluation of the horticulture therapy program.
PB: In: D. Relf, ed., The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-being and Social Development: A National Symposium (proceedings), Timber Press, Portland, OR., p.189.
HO: HAVE.
AB: A horticultural therapy program in a short-term psychiatric ward was evaluated. Both social interaction and cooperative activities were fostered by participation in the horticulture group. More than 75% of the participants perceived the group to be both enjoyable and relaxing. Over half of the patients assumed responsibility for the care and watering of their plants. Most saw the program as beneficial and felt satisfaction in what they had accomplished.


AU: Wolschke-Bulmahn, J. and G. Groening.
DT: 1992.
TL: From open-mindedness to naturalism. Garden design and ideology in Germany during the early 20th Century.
PB: From the 1992 symposium, "The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development."
HO: HAVE


[Prepared as part of the Horticulture Database under the supervision of Diane Relf, Extension Specialist, Consumer Horticulture, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0327. This document is from the VCE gopher server (gopher.ext.vt.edu).]