These are the abstracts from PEOPLE-PLANT RELATIONSHIPS: SETTING RESEARCH PRIORITIES, A National Symposium (1992 proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York, edited by Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot.


AU: Breault, John Paul and Candice Shoemaker.
DT: 1994.
TI: Measuring Motivation and Work Character Profile of Probationers in a Horticultural Community Service Work Detail Program.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: A community service work detail program has been established at a state regional hospital (NWGRH) to provide assistance to the Horticultural Therapy Program. NWGRH is a regional facility working with tuberculosis patients; adult and adolescent mental health; and developmentally disabled adults. The work detail program was established to provide a stimulating environment, job training, and a work setting for the probationer. The primary goal of the program is to reduce the number of repeat offenders reentering the criminal justice system. Training and evaluation will occur after every 200 hours of community service as well as at the beginning of the program. Some of the training topics are problem solving, communication skills, goal setting, and time management. Evaluation will include a Work Character Profile and administration of the Motication Analysis Test (MAT) which measures 10 important comfort, social, and achievement needs. Follow-up investigations of the work detail participants will present the results of the Work Character Profile and MAT for the probationers first 600 hours in the program.


AU: Burchett, Margaret and Ronald Wood.
DT: 1994.
TI: Indoor Plants and Pollution Reduction
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Preliminary experiments by Wolverton et al, first with NASA, and then for the US Interior Plantscape Division of ALCA, have shown that selected indoor potted plants, in test chambers, can reduce concentrations of volatile indoor pollutants such as formaldehyde or benzene by up to 90%. This paper outlines plans to take this pilot work further in new directions, under Australian conditions, by:
- testing the efficacy of local varieties of indoor foliage plants to reduce concentrations of volatile organics in a `real-world' situation, namely a selected air-conditioned office building in the Sydney area;
- extending Wolverton's methodology, using Australian pot-plant varieties;
- carrying out a series of studies on the mechanisms of absorption and assimilation by plants and soil micro-organisms;
- initiating selection and breeding programs for the varieties tested.
This work has enormous potential world-wide across the full range of indoor environments, in which the population of modern cities spend most of their time. These include commercial, public utility (e.g. schools, hospitals), and private dwelling environments.


AU: Ching, Alejandro and Duane Jewell.
DT: 1994.
TI: A Socio-economic Impact of New Crops Production on Diverse Groups of People: A Case Study in Northwest Missouri
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Some professional workers and business people in cities with population ranging from 10,000 to over 100,000, often purchase a parcel of land to live on and be in contact with plants. Besides providing positive psychological and social benefits to their well-being, the economic factor will affect these positive benefits, creating a socio-economic pattern that eventually will be conducive to breaking their relationship with the land. Implementing a continuing adult education system will help promote and improve their socio-economic condition. As part of the Northwest Missouri State University's Alternative Crops Program, any interested individual can retrieve information on plant culture from a computer data base program. Furthermore, experimental plot demonstrations at the experiment staten, off-campus farm demonstrations, periodic workshops and technical meetings will foster a positive attitude that eventually will change their socio-economic condition. Above all, this adult education system will alleviate people's anxiety and will help create a trusting relationship to work on the land. A feedback system can also be developed with university input, people and plant/environment response and vice versa.


AU: Diethelm, Kristen.
DT: 1994.
TI: Horticultural Therapy in a State Hospital Setting.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: With the continuing move toward de-institutionalization of the mentally ill, state hospitals are increasingly populated by those least able to profit from the traditional treatments of medication, psychotherapy, social and occupational therapies. Creating programs for those remaining is complicated not only by the severity of the illnesses but by limited funding for public facilities. Gardening activities tend to be intrinsically motivating and seem to promote hope in an often defeated and apathetic population. Such activities, however, have not been a part of the usual treatment process. Rather, if available at all, it has been considered more strictly "recreational". There is a need to establish Horticultural Therapy as a tool for reaching clinical goals.
This presentation describes a group efficacy study being carried out at Taunton State Hospital (in Massachusetts). Included will be a report on the development of a rating scale. Incorporated into the scale are patient treatment goals designed by hospital ward interdisciplinary teams. In addition, some anecdotal research in the form of case illustrations of the benefits of the Horticultural Therapy program will be presented.


AU: Dotter, John.
DT: 1994.
TI: Cultivating People-Plant Relationships in the Community and Cultural Heritage Gardens of San Jose, California, 1977-1992
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: This paper documents important people-plant relationships to be found in San Jose's ethnically diverse Community and Cultural Heritage Gardens. Unpublished University research, local magazine articles and newspaper stories are cited which show how partnerships with grassroots community groups have contributed to the garden programs sustainability. Preliminary findings, with investigative surveys, suggest that more use could be made of the non-English speaking gardeners who are skilled horticulturalists. Several case studies show how cooperative development of San Jose gardens produces the results identified by the California Council for Community Gardening in 1977 which stated: Community gardening improves the quality of life for all people by: beautifying neighborhoods; stimulating social inter-action; producing nutritious food; encouraging self-reliance, conserving resources; and creating opportunities for recreation and education.
Examples drawn from the San Jose urban gardening experience document local community pride and horticultural accomplishment. A comparison is made of San Jose's largest and oldest community garden (Mi Tierra) with 90% Hispanic plotholders, and a smaller garden (Wallenberg) entirely Caucasian.
The Cultural Heritage Garden program is recognized nationally as a new urban gardening program. San Jose's success with it's Japanese and Chinese Cultural gardens provided the basis for program expansion to include partnerships with the Vietnamese, Mexican and Filipino communities. A serious effort to have an Indo-American cultural garden is underway. Results of networking between these projects has unified various factions within each group, as well as created a new sense of belonging to the larger community. Interviews with selected horticulturists and community leaders detail this type of development.
This paper raises familiar questions and long-standing problems, connected with the operation and maintenance of user-developed gardens. Recommendations are made for the effective management of public gardens with volunteers. San Jose Community Gardens are contrasted with other Parks Division maintained public landscapes. This research paper closes with suggested methods for starting similar programs elsewhere. An annotated Bibliography is provided.


AU: Elmendorf, Bill.
DT: 1994.
TI: Citizens in Urban Forestry
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: In 1804, John James Audubon conducted the worlds first birdbanding program involving volunteers (Lalo 1991). Citizen involvement has and will continue to shape the course of our history of conservation. In the growing profession of urban forestry, citizen involvement has become a crucial component of successful management programs. Municipal urban forestry programs and organizations such as the Los Angeles based Tree People, the Philadelphia Horticultural Society and Trees Atlanta have been successful in bringing people and plants together in positive programs of public volunteerism. Cities such as Oakland and Thousand Oaks, California have developed Forestry Master Plans that incorporate sections explaining and promoting the use of volunteers in urban forestry efforts (City of Oakland 1981, City of Thousand Oaks 1989 and others). The Tree People, Trees Atlanta and Philadelphia Green have motivated citizens and produced quality information describing the planning and implementation of volunteer efforts (The Tree People 1991 and others).
Both municipalities and volunteer groups have developed guidelines which are crucial for successful volunteer efforts. Identifying and working with supportive municipal officials, good media relations, fundraising, excellent training and supervision and the undertaking of fun, rewarding and performable projects are examples (Ferris Harper and McCartney 1981, San Francisco Friends of the Urban Forest 1983).
In addition to benefits, challenges and concerns have been expressed regarding the use of volunteers. These include costs of training and supervision, low enthusiasm, loss of municipal control and low quality of work (Bansley 1991, Casey 1991, Dawe 1988 and Greenstien 1991). However, the promotion and support of volunteer efforts has been justified by the use of both quantitative and qualitative information. Cost savings, increased ability to perform work and on increased labor force are examples of volunteer benefits more easily evaluated. Intangible benefits such as goodwill, political advantage, positive social interaction, increased quality of life, and increased community pride are more difficult to measure and evaluate. These intangible benefits are sited time-after-time in a variety of popular literature by both agencies and non-profit organizations (Bansley 1991, Tiger 1983).
There seems to be little argument that citizens acting through volunteer opportunities can have substantial program and community impacts. In this time of limited funding, little information is available regarding the true impact of volunteer efforts on intangible community benefits. The search for funding of volunteer efforts and the increased use and support of volunteers warrants increased social research in an attempt to operationalize abstract community benefits.


AU: Etkin, Nina L.
DT: 1994.
TI: A Multicontextual Framework for Assessing the Health Significance of Human-Plant Interactions.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Since the earliest times, humans have used local botanicals to affect health, and have brought into cultivation or otherwise fostered the protection of a great diversity of wild plant species. Increasingly, researchers come to understand that the same plants are used in other contexts as well -- as foods, cosmetics, and herbicides, and to meet ornamental and other horticultural objectives. That this extends the range of circumstances through which people are exposed to active plant constituents helps us to comprehend better the complex paradigms through which humans interpret -- and in turn shape -- their biotic environments. This presentation suggests a multi-contextual framework for assessing the physiologic import of plant utilization through attention to the interdependent uses of plants by real populations in specific cultural contexts. Using the example of my own extensive research on plant use by Hausa in Nigeria, I illustrate how we can move ethnographic inquiry beyond a preoccupation with metaphors and exotica, at the same time that we advance ethnopharmacologic inquiry beyond the mere contriving of abstracted inventories of constituents and activities. Closer attention to overlapping uses of plants can, in the long term, help us to design more cogent approaches to the preservation of biodiversity.


AU: Flagler, Joel.
DT: 1994.
TI: Corrections and The Green Industry.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: The N.J. Department of Corrections has awarded a $90,000.00 grant to Rutgers University - Cook College to develop specialized training for correctional programs for youth. the objective is for the participants to gain horticultural skills and ultimately to be trained and employable. Potential employers include all facts of "green industry": florists, landscapers, garden centers, nursery gardens, turf managers, parks and shade tree departments, and interior plantscapers.
Using a highly structured set of training modules spread over the course of 9 months, participants will have the opportunity to develop new levels of knowledge, responsibility and achievement. A relatively small amount of classroom lecture will be augmented and supported by hands-on exercises and activities. Participants will gain meaningful experience as they put to work the lessons presented in class. field trips to horticultural productions facilities will further enrich the program.
On a regular basis, students, instructors and counselors will be surveyed to determine program effectiveness. Academic and socio-emotional progress will be monitored and documented at regular intervals. Career counseling, internships and a job placement mechanism will be implemented to steer the program graduates toward success.


AU: Green, Karen.
DT: 1994.
TI: Encouraging Nurturing Behavior of Two to Seven Year Olds by Introducing Plants and Flowers.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: The purpose of this project was to design a curriculum which encourages nurturing behavior of two to seven year olds by introducing plants and flowers. A six week curriculum comprising thirty lessons was designed to include sensory activities designed to foster practical life experiences. Books, music, outdoor activities, cooking and fantasy play with horticulture the underlying theme were used to help children to learn positive social skills.
The Evaluations by a range of professionals thought the nurturing goals were important. Which ages would best be reached was not clear. The curriculum could be easily implemented without too great a cost. Finally, the children would likely enjoy working with living plants and flowers.


AU: Greenlee, Dan.
DT: 1994.
TI: Combining Treatment of Light Deficiency Syndrome with Horticultural Therapy.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: After assisting in the establishment of various hydroponic horticultural therapy programs, I began considering how the folks working with these programs, might be benefited by the supplemental lighting needed for plant growth.
Knowing that medical studies have proven insufficient level of light can create various levels of depression, diagnosed as Light Deficiency Syndrome, which is treated with supplemental light, I will be studying at least two programs. Included will be a classroom setting in an Ohio MR/DD school and a multi-handicapped group home in West Virginia, where I will be studying a unit in a common area, and units in residents rooms. I am currently developing a system, that will combine therapeutic lighting for the treatment of Light Deficiency Syndrome, with food for the mind, through horticultural therapy. It is hoped that preliminary clinical studies will be completed by an area mental health agency before the symposium.
Research continues to develop the diagnostic tools, general practitioners need to evaluate LDS. As a result of this, most of my studies will not involve folks with medical LDS diagnosis. Proposed methodology will involve observation by staff in the geriatric and MR/DD settings, and an attempt to evaluate the effects of the lighting on the populations. In the proposed medical studies, the diagnosed patients will be studied to compare the results of passive light treatment, received from the growing units, with active light from "light boxes".


AU: Hlubik, William T. and Harry F. Betros.
DT: 1994.
TI: Environmental R.E.S.C.U.E.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Environmental programs have traditionally focused on alleviating environmental problems with an isolated or fragmented approach, rather than addressing the interrelated issues that constitute such problems. Success of environmental stewardship depends on research establishing techniques for integrating the diverse elements that constitute environmental problems. Scientific investigation into the value of people- plant relationships can be applied to environmental problem solving. The Environmental R.E.S.C.U.E. Program is an example of the application of interdisciplinary research. In addition, it offers the opportunity to collect quantified data to evaluate the efficacy of such programs. The methods evaluating the program will serve as a useful model for similar evaluations.


AU: Ikagawa, Toshi.
DT: 1994.
TI: People, Plants and Proto-paysage: A Study of Ornamental Plants in Residential Front Yards in Honolulu, Hawaii.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: When a group of people from the same cultural background immigrate to a new place, they tend to bring their traditional ideas with them. The manifestation of part of this has been termed "transported landscape." In Hawaii, which is known as a melting pot of peoples, such transported ideas are visible in the appearance and selection of plants in residential front yards. At the same time, some modifications of original ideas and the apparent increase of similar garden styles between the different cultural groups are also evident. The question is whether: (1) the appearance of front yards; or (2) the proto-paysage (the universal image of the original human habitat) tends to amalgamate it. Of course, (3) the temporal factor (sequential occupancy, generations in Hawaii, etc.) must be taken into consideration. The present paper is the progress report of my Ph.D. research taking place in Honolulu, Hawaii.


AU: Kaplan, Maxine.
DT: 1994.
TI: Use of Sensory Stimulation with Alzheimer Patients in a Garden Setting.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Using an established self-contained garden area and improving its functionability with raised beds, winding hard-surfaced pathways, comfortable seating areas and a garden water fountain, a trained Horticultural Therapist will direct, assist and encourage Alzheimer patients to recapture some of their pleasant early life experiences in a naturalized setting.
Old-fashioned flowers and vegetables; fragrant, textured and edible plants will help stimulate their tactile, olfactory and gustatory senses as well as their visual. The subtle trickling of water from a nearby garden fountain will also help reach these patients on an auditory level. Planting, walking, working the soil with their hands....touching, smelling, seeing, listening, tasting....will hopefully provide a serene, non-threatening positive experience that in some way will improve their quality of life.
Short and long term goals are to help Alzheimer patients to reduce their periods of agitation and aggression.
Standardized tests, such as the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Mental Status Questionnaire (PGC) which measures cognitive functioning; the Ernst Emotional Problems Questionnaire which measures affective functioning; Nursing-Chart notes reporting behavioral changes and/or number of recorded aggressive behavior incidents (+ or -); author-designed measurements and check lists; along with the use of tape recordings of first, intermediate and final H.T. sessions recording number of social initiatives and/or interactions (+ or -) will be used in a collaborative effort to measure and assess whether Horticultural Therapy will: (1) increase verbalization (2) increase socialization (3) stimulate long and short term memory (4) improve orientation (5) improve overall affect.


AU: Kavanagh, Jean.
DT: 1994.
TI: People-Plant Principle from the Past.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: The work of Frederick Law Olmsted, the "Father of Landscape Architecture",
and that of his firm from the 1850's through the first half of this century resulted in many of the most professionally and socially influential landscapes on the United States. Central Park, Prospect Park, Druid Hill Park, Riverside and hundreds of other urban, suburban, and wilderness landscapes designed as healthful, restorative environments have attained national significance as plant-oriented places of enduring popularity.
The long term success and viability of these places can be attributed to a number of "Olmstedian" design principles which influence the nature and quality of human interactions within these intensively vegetated settings. This paper is intended to examine these Olmstedian principles for approaches to the layout and organization of therapeutic landscapes which encourage participation with plants and with the outdoor spaces they shape. The discussion will focus on (1) the needs and applications to today's restorative landscapes and (2) their influence on future research and criteria for improving places for people and plants.


AU: Kavanagh, Jean and Thomas Musiak.
DT: 1994.
TI: Surveying The Therapeutic Landscape.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: This paper reports the findings of the 1991 nationwide outdoor facilities survey of horticultural therapy programs conducted by researchers at Texas Tech University. The presentation is intended to encourage discussions which explore area of future research into the optimum physical design of outdoor plant-oriented therapeutic landscapes.
The premise for discussions is found in the perception of the outdoor landscapes of horticultural therapy as essentially vernacular landscapes. Yet, as places of personal expression and significance, these ad hoc gardens often are found within institutions and organizations having artful, even expensively designed and maintained grounds. The nature and forms of the purposefully therapeutic questions which can profoundly affect the quality and likelihood of plant-people connections.


AU: Keller, Terry.
DT: 1994.
TI: Gardening Changes a Community.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: A general presentation on the benefits of community gardens in urban environments. The presentation will identify research needs and at the same time support the thesis that community gardens area positive attribute in urban communities. Specific examples of successes will be presented from ten years of work in the New York City community gardening movement. Most importantly, work from the last three years in the Bronx will be highlighted and used as a backdrop to identify research needs. Some of these areas of research to be identifies include the relationship between property values and community gardens and the patterns of demographic change in neighborhoods with community gardens. With many accomplishments over a ten year period working throughout New York City, there also challenges...to growth and how to meet the different needs of communities in a state of profound change. Those of us in the field have a mandate to support the people in the communities; not to provide agencies with facts and figures. Our needs are different and therefore we need to reconcile data collection with hands on support.


AU: Lewis, Charles.
DT: 1994.
TI: The Evolutionary Importance of People/Plant Relationships.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: An evolutionary view of the relationships between people and plants acknowledges the connection of present day humans with the natural system in which they arose as a species. Psychologists and geographers have become aware of this connection while investigating the kinds of landscape settings people prefer to see. The researchers find, across a wide array of socioeconomic cultural level, a high preference for scenes which include vegetation. They also find visual preference associated with arousal of subjective feelings which lead individuals to nature-associated activities: walk in the woods, work in the garden, and travel to view fall color or the awakening of spring. These instinctive human responses to green nature, part of our personal make up, are seldom considered consciously. Researchers seeking the origin of these preferences and associated activities look to experiences which are adaptive for survival or primitive evolving humans. By viewing our primitive evolving ancestors as information gatherers and users, insight is gained into the importance of their natural environment as the source of survival information. Cues in the landscape which signifies the survival value of a habitat also triggered emotional responses which continue to be evident in humans today. Expression of landscapes preferences can be found throughout human history, where each culture invests these preferences with its unique cultural symbols and ideas. People/plant responses remind us of out origins and the ancient but continuing role of plants in our survival.


AU: Liptak, Clare.
DT: 1994.
TI: Risk Communication Methods for Newspaper.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Educators writing about gardening and environmental risk can benefit from the application of research conducted by social scientist such as writers and communicators. Methods include writing text readable at the ninth grade level and topic selection that reflect readers' concerns. Persons concerned about a particular risk are more interested in reducing exposure to it rather than understanding its origin. A newspaper column with a variety of relevant risk management options may strengthen the writer's credibility. Although well educated, many readers will not be familiar with science and may not necessarily want the most efficient method of resolving a problem if that requires the use of a pesticide. The articles offer only on overview of the problem and its solutions. They do not promote one solution over another, but simply state factors for the reader to consider in reaching a decision. The concluding line invites readers who want detailed information to call for facts sheets written by Rutgers Cooperative Extension Specialists. These methods increase the effectiveness of mass media to disseminate information, does not usually generate questions on the topic of the article for the Extension professional, and may increase credibility for the Cooperative Extension office.


AU: Moore, Robin.
DT: 1994.
TI: The Greening of a Schoolyard: Its impact on children's behavior and their positive feelings towards each other and their school environment.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: A 1/2 acre urban elementary schoolyard, originally 100% asphalt, was redeveloped with indigenous vegetation, an aquatic system, gardens, and various other playing and learning settings.
A quantitative-qualitative research strategy was conducted over several years using observational, survey and interview methods to assess the impact of this dramatically changed environment on its users. A total of fifty-eight activity places were identified, which were subdivided for the purposes of analysis onto ten behavior-environment ecosystems and, in turn, three primary behavior-environment zones: natural resource area, community play area, and asphalt.
Descriptive analysis reveals distinctly different patterns of children's behavior in time and space for each zone; e.g., in the natural resource area much longer attention spans, more social integration, far greater diversity of activities. Cognitive mapping indicates an overwhelmingly stronger image for the natural settings (and the animals that live there)- -especially the aquatic elements. On-site recordings and interviews provide a rich source of information to remind adults of the powerful positive impact that intimate natural settings can have on the creative imaginations and affective domain of children.


AU: Moreno-Black, Geraldine.
DT: 1994.
TI: Gathered Food and Culture Change: Traditions in Transition in Northeastern Thailand.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: The traditional diet in Northeast Thailand is widely known for its heavy reliance on non-domesticated, gathered food resources. In this region gathered food, especially plants, can act as a link among individuals, families and community members. Women's gathering activities create an intensive interaction between members of the community and the plant resources. These interactions are being affected by the recent increase in the marketing of gathered food resources. Changes are occurring in the selection and management of certain plants, gathering practices, dietary patterns and social relationships involving reciprocity and exchange of gathered food. These findings are discussed in the context of increasing participation in the cash economy and regional environmental changes.


AU: Nichandowicz, James.
DT: 1994.
TI: Initiation of Urban Beautification Program Raises Research Issues.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: The Elizabeth 4-H Flowerbox Project provides Elizabeth, New Jersey residents with horticulture information, tools, barrel planters and flowers to beautify their neighborhoods. This presentation will identify research needs associated with issues that have been encountered since the projects' inception. Such as, how can we measure, quantitatively, the effects of a community beautification project? Also, what qualities of an urban beautification project appeal to residents of areas that are subject to many pressing problems. Lastly, research needs to initiated that compares and contrasts beautification projects that are community centered rater than imposed from a more centralized authority.


AU: Owen, Patricia.
DT: 1994.
TI: The Influence of a Botanical Garden Experience on Human Health.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Physiological and psychological measurements of 127 participants, who were visitors to a botanical garden, were collected to determine the influence of a garden experience on human health. The study was conducted at Botanica, the Wichita Gardens, during September and October 1990. Blood pressure and pulse rates were measured before and after the participants visited the garden. Other participant information gathered included time and length of visit, temperature and data from three surveys. The pre- visit survey identified emotional expectations of the garden visit. The post-visit surveys determined emotional impressions and health information.
Significant decreases in systolic blood pressure measurements for participants were found on three of the four days of the study. On the day the temperature reached 99 degrees, with increased humidity levels, no significant change in systolic blood pressure was found. This study indicates and justifies a need for further research into the physiological and psychological affects of exposure to plant materials in a variety of settings for humans.


AU: Rasmussen, Kathy.
DT: 1994.
TI: Research Techniques for Quantifying the Psychophysiological Response of People to Plants.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: The concept of "psychological well-being" has been intensively explored by scientists working with laboratory animals. One of the most basic difficulties encountered in any such research--with humans, as well as animals--is that of defining objective, measurable criteria of well-being that can be used to establish regulations for living environments, Some of the criteria employed have been behavioral, and involve measurement of activity, social interaction or cognitive performance. Other criteria involve measurement of physiological variables such as heart rate, blood pressure, stress hormones or immune function. Techniques for documenting and quantifying behavioral and physiological variables will be discussed, along with some of the advantages and pitfalls of their use.


AU: Schwartz, Judith.
DT: 1994.
TI: American Women and Their Gardens: A Study in Health, Happiness and Power, 1600-1900.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: In looking at historical perspectives of the people/plant relationship, accepted histories must be re-read with a fresh outlook, as this subject is not usually documented as such. Women's history must also be pulled from between the lines of already written volumes in which their story is largely omitted, although occasionally alluded to. The special relationship which women share with plants, horticulture, agriculture, botany, etc...can be traced from mythological and biblical story and allusion through the centuries. The history of women in America, from 1600 to 1900, coincides with the development of "western" horticulture in this country, specifically in terms of personal and public health, happiness and social position (ie., power), which are primary manifestations of the people/plant relationship.
The pursuit of this research is often like the proverbial "looking for a needle of the haystack", although undocumented and sentimental appraisals of women's relationship to plants abound, especially in histories of early years of our nation. The virtually non-existent literacy rate amongst Colonial women makes early first-hand accounts very rare. Prescriptive literature, written by men, does, however, make clear many of the goodwife's skills and responsibilities. As literacy increases from 1600 to 1900, women's letters and diaries, as well as published garden notes and even botanical field guides, attest to the special relationship that women have shared with plants and horticulture from pre-history to the present.


AU: Sherk, Bonnie.
DT: 1994.
TI: A Living Library.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: People of all ages can participate in interactive indoor/outdoor culture- ecology parks called Life Frames, which are designed in site-and situation-sensitive ways to integrate the local resources of a particular area: human, ecological, economic, historic, aesthetic and technological. Each of these Life Frames will bring to life the culture and ecology of a place through the use of plants and other living forms; all the arts; the built and ecological environments; programs of lectures, demonstrations, workshops, research institutes; and state-of-the-art communications technologies.
Each environment with its integrated programs and curricula will have a unique relationship to the indigenous resources and characteristic of the \locale and its people, and the linking together of the individual Life Frames (which can also be thought of as branch Living Libraries) will create an extraordinary international network - A LIVING LIBRARY. Each will consist of intellectually and visually exciting interactive learning/creating environments that give people practical as well as cognitive and sensory experience, stimulate and support creativity and choice, and motivate people to want to learn - so that they can learn. A LIVING LIBRARY, as it grows and matures, will reflect the rich multicultural and ecological diversity of the planet. Locally, each Life Frame will serve its community as an educational, cultural, social, and aesthetic magnet, a place integrated with a thematic program and curricula, and will involve students, families, artists, horticulturists, environmentalists, historians, computer scientists, and others in its creation, use, maintenance, and communication.


AU: Smith-Fiola, Deborah and William Hallman.
DT: 1994.
TI: Perceptions of Nature and Risks of Lyme Disease.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Lyme disease is a bacterial infection spread by the bite of the tiny deer tick. It can ultimately cause arthritis, heart problems and neurological conditions. The ticks may be spread in the wild by birds, mice, raccoons, and deer. People who live near landscapes that can support these animals are especially at risk for tick bites. Monitoring studies suggest that deer ticks are particularly plentiful in suburban landscapes adjacent to woodlands. The ticks can also be carried close to home by pets. Ninety percent of the Lyme Disease cases in the U.S. have been reported in the Northeast. As more houses are built near woodlands and as birds and other animals carry deer ticks further inland, more people are exposed to Lyme Disease.
Evidence suggests that people are becoming increasingly concerned about the treat of Lyme Disease. People are also concerned because of the many uncertainties surrounding the Disease. The ticks that spread the disease are smaller that the head of a pin; nearly 40% of Lyme Disease victims do not remember having been bitten by a tick. Blood tests used to detect Lyme Disease are not perfectly reliable, and not every Lyme Disease victim responds to treatment. These uncertainties are often reinforced by media stories in which by Lyme Disease sufferers are often portrayed as the victims of an incurable disease caused by an invisible assailant. Because of these uncertainties, many people have become vigilant in their attempts to avoid being bitten by a deer tick. Strategies for avoiding ticks range quite widely. Because the risk of a tick bite increases with outdoor recreational pursuits, some people have given up these activities altogether. Others have modified their immediate landscape surroundings. Still others are proposing to cut down woodlands, to exclude children from playing in public parks and to reduce local deer populations.
This paper reports results survey data from an ongoing investigation into peoples' perceptions of the risks of Lyme Disease, and their Beliefs, attitudes and behaviors in relating to the natural world.


AU: Strauss, Martha.
DT: 1994.
TI: Measuring the Quality of Treatment in Horticultural Therapy Groups
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: The mental health-care system is in a state of change. Hospitals are finding the need to provide more and quicker treatment with less resources. Lengths of stay are reduced, and the need to provide effective treatment quickly has increased. As part of the quality assurance program, the Rehabilitative Therapies committee designed and implemented a four- month study to measure patient's perceptions of their treatment groups run by Rehabilitative Therapies. The survey was designed to measure self esteem, independent functioning, social interaction, expression of feelings and if the group fit into the treatment plan. The survey was filled out one day a week for the duration of the patient's hospitalization. The number of weeks in a group was included in order to assess changes in treatment and patient's perceptions of their treatments. The data is currently under analysis, and the preliminary findings suggest that satisfaction with Horticultural Therapy began high and remained high throughout length of stay. Data will be compared with other Rehabilitative Therapies groups.


AU: Thomasson, David.
DT: 1994.
TI: The Psycho-social Roles of Kitchen Gardens amidst Economic Change and Natural Disaster: Montserrat, British West Indies.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Household food gardens have long been recognized as an integral component of Caribbean subsistence strategies. Studies have shown some of the economic and nutritional roles of gardening at the household level, but few have addressed their functional characteristics within society at large. Least understood is their niche in changing national economies. In the face of increasing attention to gardens in international development, an understanding of this broader context is crucial.
This field research on the kitchen garden system of Montserrat was conducted in the aftermath of hurricane Hugo, which devastated all agroecosystems and infrastructure on the island. The research documents the critical importance of kitchen gardens in the face of natural disaster within the larger context of economic change, at the family, community and national levels. The work reveals some important psycho-social roles of the garden that need to be considered in development planning, for example; their provision of disaster food, and as job substitutes.


AU: Ulrich, Roger.
DT: 1994.
TI: Human and Plant Ecology: Global Considerations.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: This talk will present data on Global Problems and Solutions, relating to the demise of the Earth's Forests as well as our total Ecosystem. It will touch on population growth, species extinction, and the Green House effect. It will also address the action taken by the Author in a legal case in Kalamazoo, Michigan against Road Commissioners who for 20 years supported a destructive roadside spraying and tree removal policy as well as subsequent repercussions.


AU: Ulrich, Roger.
DT: 1994.
TI: Methods for Investigating People-Plant Relationships.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: The systematic study of human interactions with plants is in its infancy. One approach to fostering growth in the field is to borrow appropriate theoretical perspectives and research methods from a closely allied discipline, such as environmental psychology. This presentation suggests a potential set of research directions and methods for the study of visual person-plant interactions that borrows from theory and research on human responses to large scale outdoor environments. Theoretical perspectives in this area converge to predict that people should respond more positively to outdoor environment rich in natural elements, such as trees, shrubbery, grasses and other vegetation, as opposed to urban environments lacking nature. Self-reports of aesthetic preferences and psychophysiological studies of responses to environmental surrogates have supported this prediction, as well as suggesting that natural environments may have stress-reducing effects. One general approach, then, to the study of people-plant interactions would be to test the extent to which these findings generalize to smaller vegetation types and flowering plants. Several potential research methods to achieve this goal are briefly described, categorized according to whether actual or surrogate horticultural stimuli are used, and whether emotional, behavioral and/or health effects are the primary interest. The focus of the presentation is on methods that employ multiple measures to assess human benefits of person-plant interactions, including self-reports, performance on cognitive tasks and psychophysiological indicators of stress recovery and emotional well-being. It is suggested that early, basic research on people-plant interactions be centered on laboratory oriented studies, to take advantage of the greater experimental control such studies offer. With the exception of small scale interior environments, this approach implies a substantial reliance on surrogate horticultural stimuli, and several examples of computer generated visual stimuli that vary with respect to the presence/absence of plants will be presented.


AU: Wester, Lyndon L. and Dina Chuesanguansat.
DT: 1994.
TI: Adoption and Abandonment of Southeast Asian Food Plants.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: A remarkable array of plants are collected in the wild, tended or actively cultivated as a source of food in rural Southeast Asia and contribute to a diverse and interesting cuisine. Produce markets in Northeastern Thailand for example typically have more than 70 species of fruits, vegetables and pot herbs of which most are indigenous. Markets in larger cities have a far greater array of imported food plants but tend to lack, or offer in only small quantities, many species available in abundance in provincial towns and villages. Which species and varieties survive will depend upon such factors as the status associated with foods, changing tastes, or the cost of production and marketing as engagement in a cash economy and migration change human circumstances. Southeast Asian immigrants in the US have introduced a number of plants which contribute to the diversity of diet in this nation.


AU: Whittlesey, Lisa A.
DT: 1994.
TI: Master Gardener Program -- Federal Prison Camp -- Bryan, Texas.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: The Cooperative Extension Service is dedicated to providing informational, educational, and community development services. For many years, the Extension Service has utilized volunteers to reach people it could not have reached otherwise. The Master Gardener Program is one such volunteer program.
Although the Master Gardener volunteer program is a nation-wide program, the Extension Service is broadening its scope by developing a Master Gardener program within the Federal Bureau of Prisons prison camp facilities in Bryan, Texas. This unique Master Gardener program is the first of its type in the nation. The program is designed as a six-month program that includes classroom instruction as well as hands-on activities in greenhouse production, vegetable gardening, landscape design, and floral design. The program is unique in that it not only provides vocational and job training skills, but also utilizes a new group of volunteers in community service and outreach programs.


AU: Wolschke-Bulmahn, Joachim.
DT: 1994.
TI: Between Open-mindedness and Naturalism -- Plant Impacts on Garden Culture in Germany during the 19th and 20th Centuries.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: The introduction of exotic plants from other continents during the past centuries affected German garden culture. After 1800, many horticultural societies were established, collections of exotic plants were developed in arboreta and botanical gardens and exotic plants found their way into bourgeois house gardens. But the increasing nationalism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries influenced this international orientation in garden culture. In the mainstream, the cultivation of foreign plants was continued. Nevertheless, a 'horticultural' conservatism emerged, which introduced nationalistic and racist ideas into garden design. An important exponent was the garden architect Lange, who developed since 1900 concepts of the nature garden and stressed a specific German need for gardens, reflected also in plant choice. Pre-National Socialism, Seifert developed new concepts of truly German garden design. During National Socialism many garden architects used mainly plants considered to be native and indigenous and banned foreign plants from the German garden and landscape.
The paper will discuss this development and will demonstrate that such ideologies have never disappeared, but that they even gained influence during the last two decades. Today instead of nationalistic, so-called ecological arguments are used to ban foreign plants from German landscape and gardens.


AU: Zadik, Madelaine.
DT: 1994.
TI: Studying the corporate garden.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: Corporations have been building indoor and outdoor gardens for a variety of reasons ranging from enhancing their image in the eyes of the public to improving the work environment for their employees. While the motivating factors may not always be as altruistic as we might like to believe, one frequently hears anecdotal evidence of the resulting improved employee attitudes and productivity. Here is a setting ripe with possibilities for research to explore the effects of these gardens and the human response to them.
The Channing L. Bete Co. of Deerfield, MA is an example used to explore these research possibilities. They recently spent $4.5 million on an office expansion with an indoor "Wintergarden" of 8,200 square feet. Their stated goals were providing a space for employees to go and relax, for informal meetings, as well as a place for the entire company to meet. The garden won an award from Interiorscape magazine, but how can we translate this into concrete data to show the value to people of such a garden setting?
This presentation will review some of the research that has bees done in this area and identify specific research needs and goals for the future.


AU: Zampini, James W.
DT: 1994.
TI: Beautification: Enhancement Opportunities for Horticulturists and Communities.
PB: In: Joel Flagler and Raymond P. Poincelot, eds., People-Plant Relationships: Setting Research Priorities, A National Symposium (proceedings), Hayworth Press, Inc, New York.
HO: HAVE.
AB: The contagious spirit of volunteers who were "just waiting to be asked" made a dream become a reality in the most depressed, drug ridden area of Painesville, Ohio. the impact of the Morse Avenue project was immediate. An area that had been devoid of beauty was transformed overnight into a community showcase. It has radiated a sense of inner goodness and harmony throughout the community and is now a source of pride. The success of this project has served as a catalyst within the community. This is an example of how horticulturists can help their community with applied people-plant interactions.


[Prepared as part of the Horticulture Database under the supervision of Diane Relf, Extension Specialist, Consumer Horticulture, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0327. This document is from the VCE gopher server (gopher.ext.vt.edu).]